Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Computer Science-Information System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Computer Science-Information System - Essay Example in the case of industrial espionage or actions on the competitors' side) or inadvertent. Anyway, uncontrolled distribution of private information (especially about customers, e.g. card numbers, addresses, orders, business transactions, etc.) will result in withdrawal of customers and business partners, numerous lawsuits, and reducing revenues and profits. Therefore, often companies try to protect own information systems at the expense of employees privacy. This is a part of computer crime prevention measures with usage of specialized encrypting and authentication hardware and software, anti-malware programs such as Internet filters, firewalls, antiviruses, intrusion detection systems, etc. In some cases company's prevention measures contain monitoring for employee's communications from office workstations including e-mail control. Here, it is necessary to note that federal laws permit employers to monitor e-mail sent and received by employees. However, most companies maintain own privacy policies, trying to balance between privacy rights and security of business information. Sometimes corporate privacy policies allow employees and customers to access data about them and let them decide how that data can be used. This helps to avoid possible misunderstandings between company, employees, and customers. 2. 2. It is obvious that working conditions in IT Company must be designed to prevent computer crimes and simultaneously to avoid negative ethical consequences of prevention procedures. In fact, there is need to balance between some restrictions of Company's information flows and some rights to privacy, and also some rights to know; see Freeman & Graham Peace (2005), and also Tynan (2005). There are two main strategies to achieve such balance which often combined in practice. First strategy is "the way of prohibitions", namely not to distribute business information and information about technical processes, innovations, features of source codes, information from Company's internal databases, not to delete or corrupt information without clear instructions, etc. These restrictions can be easy formulated, described and then realized by technical means. Also, there are certain possibilities to reveal and investigate almost all cases of violation such Company's rules. These violations can be classified as computer crimes and often related to industrial espionage and information "wars" between competing companies. It is necessary to note that employee must have access to certain parts of Company's data to perform work tasks; therefore, information cannot be concealed at all. Alternative strategy is "the way of responsibility and obligations" or using corporate ethic rules. These rules determine generally accepted and discouraged activities within IT Company and between organizations. Employees define acceptable practices more strictly than just refraining from committing computer crimes; they also consider the effects of their activities on other people and organizations. Therefore, it is necessary to promote ethically responsible use of information systems on the base of developed codes of ethics, e.g. AITP code of ethics. This code of ethics is a set of obligations to management, fellows, society, employer, and country. For each area of obligation, standards of conduct describe the specific duties and

Monday, October 28, 2019

Media and Academic Process Essay Example for Free

Media and Academic Process Essay The threat comes from Iraq. It arises directly from the Iraqi regimes own actions its history of aggression, and its drive toward an arsenal of terror (WHPR1, 2002). Months before on February 13, 2002 during a Press Conference with President Musharraf of Pakistan, Mr. Bush declared: And I think that statement was clear enough for Iraq to hear me. And I will reserve whatever options I have, Ill keep them close to my vest. President or Saddam Hussein needs to understand Im serious about defending our country (WHPR2, 2002). And During his speech at the Virginia Military Institute on April 17, 2002, Mr. Bush made these claims: And, finally, the civilized world faces a grave threat from weapons of mass destruction. A small number of outlaw regimes today possess and are developing chemical and biological and nuclear weapons. Theyre building missiles to deliver them, and at the same time cultivating ties to terrorist groups. In their threat to peace, in their mad ambitions, in their destructive potential and in the repression of their own people, these regimes constitute an axis of evil and the world must confront them (WHPR3, 2002). With all these statements made in the presence of media persons and the way it had been made that a major part of America and the world really believed that Saddam Hussein and the Iraq is the real threat to the civilized society. Despite the presence of law which prohibits the Bush administration from disseminating government propaganda at home. But in an age of global communications, there is nothing to stop it from planting a phony pro-war story overseas knowing with certainty that it will reach American citizens almost instantly. This is the power of media and especially electronic media. It has the capability to make any one believe in what it wants to convey. The beautiful newsreader on a TV channel giving us the news. After that the news analysis program is aired. The program brings a battery of analysts to our bedrooms, drawing rooms or shops. These serious looking intelligent faces sitting in front of camera with a list of burning issues are giving their view on the issues. Their facial expression and smartness over words, language and the contents can make anyone feel ill informed. This makes us glued to the television screen. And once the program gets finished we have an unusual feeling that now we have gained great information on issues about which we were quiet ignorant few minutes or hours before. A single program made some change in our self and our personal database of information. This is the actual effect of one of the most popular form of media called the electronic media. But the point of concern is not its power but its ability of influencing human especially child psyche. The actual issue which has been raised this time is the way it makes an impact on our world views. The authenticity of the content which is aired is now being discussed. The focus is shifting towards the way it influences religion, culture and social belief. After all the US govt., with all its efforts didn’t found a single weapon of mass destruction. The Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq was defeated by the combined US and UK army. But the main issue that led to the war was the weapons of mass destruction which Saddam Hussein regime was allegedly possessing, was nowhere present. This means what the US govt. and its allies were telling the whole world was actually a farce. It was nothing more than a propaganda war against a nation which was adamant to pursue those policies which were not influenced by US. Things mentioned above are some of the many effects caused through electronic media. Moving on to its actual definition, electronic media are those communications mediums which are based on electronic or electromechanical means of production and most often distinguished from print media. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public worldwide include — radio, sound recordings, television, video recording, and streaming internet content. And this electric communication technology goes further than any of the previous products of mans skill. Earlier technologies extended the power of mans limbs, and with the invention of writing, mans memory in a sense could be placed outside of himself. Present communication technologies supplant mans external senses, and more recently, the internal senses of imagination and the most important, the central or common sense, which brings the various data of the external senses together into a cohesive unity (McDonald). The world of information, however conceived, may appear to exist in its own right by means of electronics, and the human user becomes a mere participant in that world. Now if we look upon things that influence a child and how the media impacts those factors in its formative days. The child in its formative sees many things and in accordance with its understanding capability it takes decision. A healthy child hood is very necessary thing to provide sound academia knowledge not just beautified propaganda. The media which include television, radio, internet and newspaper are perhaps the biggest source of knowledge and information. And they are now very much a part of academic development of the child. As, there are many possible factors which affect the child and at the same time these factors come under continuous inferences through media; hence these factors have strongly associated and have become reason can be the Material wealth: It depicts the average financial state of area or the society which breeds crime. It quantifies the very material or average prosperity of the family and the society of which a person is a part of. Media’s depiction of strength, material wealth and prosperity makes a strong case in child’s mind and his purpose of study and academic excellence. Health: This factor under the influence of news and information obtained through media has its importance while quantifying security at the physical as well as mental health of the people. It decides the affluence and the penury that has been faced by the child. Social security and stability: The overall development and upbringing of a child is a multiple of this factor. The child is greatly affected with the type of society media presents and hence his academic performance gets an impact. Family life: The condition of a family on an average is an indication of family life of the child. The divorce rates are being given the status of indicator for quantifying this factor. The rising instances of single parenthood are another very important cause. The separation is a very traumatic experience of a child and can be a reason behind the creation of a situation of loneliness and the state of depression. Community and Social Life: This factor corresponds to the social behavior of the child and how much social his attitudes are. The negligibility in social life corresponds to lower interest of the child in community life thereby increasing another wave of insecurity at personal as well social level. Job Security: This factor is self explanatory and is being indicated through unemployment rate expressed in percentage. A secure job to a youth makes him more confident and ultimately he or she turns out to be a better prospect to the society. At the same time the insecurity in this factor causes frustration and causes the occurrence of diminishing patterns in above mentioned factors especially material well being. So now the fact is that the criminals and misguided youths are very much a off the track output of the same social upbringing that were meant for the development of moral standards right from the formative years. The development of this is very much due to the behavior pattern of the people that are around them. They are the people whom these children treat with respect and are the personalities they admire. A child’s behavior is very much a factor of the behavior characteristics of the personalities he or she often meets and admires and is presented through media. Electronic media have been found to present glamorized Robin Hoods with criminal personalities and unusual behavior of celebrities making headlines. The biggest example of this projection is the presence of Che Guevara as a fashion cult despite the fact that he was always against the US imperialist policies. So the concern is how the media is affecting the child and not just child but also the factors that are directly or indirectly related to the child’s development and academic performance. The news of slowdown in world economy and the rising of Asian economy giants like India and China and the job outsourcing makes the same guy more frightened. He feels threatened. And this perceived threat results in a physical reaction as much as actual physical injury. The same person in a large crowd sees perhaps twenty people around him, but a camera above the crowd reveals a crowd incomprehensible to human imagination. The widespread anxiety among people in the first world about there being too many people is an effect of them seeing thousands of faces on television, whereas someone may walk for hours on the streets of the suburbs without seeing a single person (McDonald). The reality is that the information beaming capability of the electronic media upsets normal community and family relations based on physical contact and proximity, leading to an ersatz community where people have the illusion of being angels. People in their relations are reduced to being pieces of disembodied information without context or substance. The level of sensation present in our lives affects our intellectual judgment. According to report, it has been found that there has been an explosion in recent years in electronic media marketed directly at the very youngest children in our society: A booming market of videotapes and DVDs aimed at infants one to 18 months, the launching of the first TV show specifically targeting children as young as 12 months, and a multi-million dollar industry selling computer games and even special keyboard toppers for children as young as nine months old. Their homes are packed with media options, including TVs, computers, DVD players and video game consoles. Nearly all children (99%) live in a home with a TV set, half (50%) have three or more TVs, and one-third (36%) have a TV in their bedroom. Nearly three out of four (73%) have a computer at home, and about half (49%) have a video game player. In some ways, new media is trumping old: nearly twice as many children in this age group live in a home with Internet access (63%) as with a newspaper subscription (34%). Nearly all of them (97%) have products—clothes, toys, and the like—based on characters from TV shows or movies (Rideout, 2003). But the point of concern is that this rapid changes in our media environment have not been accompanied by a similar growth in our knowledge of how new media may impact children’s cognitive, social, emotional or physical development. These issues are of deep concern not only to parents, but also to educators, health providers, policymakers and advocates. Many experts have argued that it is especially critical to understand media use by the youngest children, noting that because social and intellectual development are more malleable in these early years, media use at this age could have an especially significant impact. According to Valdemar W.  Setzer (1993), some children addicted to electronic games spoke too fast with limited sense, feeling or contents in their speech. This suggests that those children spoke with a speed compared to the use they make of their fingers when playing the games. There is a correlation between speaking and gesturing, which may be explained by the close proximity of the motor and speech neurological centers in the brain. The fact that children do not have the fully developed, active thinking and consciousness characteristic of adults means they dont have to make any effort to switch off these inner activities when playing electronic games and are not sidetracked by outside influences that can act as a buffer to overdevelopment of or addiction to an undesirable trait. Finally, we can say that though a child’s ability to gather information is enhanced by technology but at the same time we are placed under greater stress, and to maintain equilibrium we must find strategies to cope with it. One strategy is to withdraw from the flood of information and go for selected and conscious input. It is one of the ways but there is a need of finding more. References The White House Press Release, The White House Press Release, The White House Press Release,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ McDonald, H. Asceticism and the Electronic Media: Technophilia and Technophobia in the Perspective of Christian Philosophy,, 3. Katsh, E. (1989).   The Electronic Media and the Transformation of Law, Oxford University Press. Rideout, V. J. Vandewater, E. A. Wartella, E. A. (2003). Zero to Six : Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers., A Kaiser Family Foundation Report. Setzer, V. W. Duckett, G. E. (1993). The Risks to Children Using Electronic Games,     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Child Socialization :: essays research papers

Children are raised in many different cultures all over the world. As we know, cultures differ from place to place. They have different rules, values, roles, and even communication patterns. An example of this would be a French person greeting someone, and an American greeting someone else. The French say hello by kissing each other on both cheeks. As Americans, we tend to shake hands. These things are what determine how a child will turn out after being brought up in that culture. Children growing up with Anglo-European roots are taught to value their independence, boldness, equality, achievement, self-help, and self-directedness. All of these values significantly affect the family. They believe in family privacy because it is said that families will be allowed to raise their children as they see fit. The only time that this is interfered with is when the parents neglect or mistreat their children. Individualism is also another highly valued trait. Those who subscribe to such thought believe that individual growth is essential to a well-balanced approach to life. It should be noted however, that equality amongst others is essential as well. Those who have come before us have worked extremely hard to gain equality in this country and it should be cherished. Life as it was once known has changed due to the vast amount of modernization and blending of cultures that has occurred within the past 30 years. People talk, walk, and dress differently with a steady eye always toward the future. Success now based on power and resources, especially money. Each individual is expected to do his or her best and is often thrown into the arena of fierce competition in which he or she is encouraged to flourish. Families communicate differently within themselves. For example, at dinnertime my whole family will sit together and talk about how the day was. All day long, everyone is out doing their own thing but at dinner the whole family comes together. This is the time of day that they set aside to communicate amongst each other. Other families might just see dinner as just another meal. Instead of sitting together around the table, they might all just come in, take their dinner, and go where they want to eat it. The kids might go in the family room and watch television while the parents sit in the kitchen. This differs for every family.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

R.L Stevenson shows many opposites in the strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Essay

In the book Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde the two main characters are complete opposites. Dr Jekyll is a kind person however when he changes into Mr Hyde his attitude changes into a nasty, evil person. R.L Stevenson carries on the ‘opposites’ through the book keeping the readers guessing. The two doors to Jekyll’s house seem to be complete opposites. One is shabby and in a dark corner of a building which is described as a ‘sinister block’. By saying ‘it showed no window’ suggests that its dark and secrecy; maybe they have something to hide. The wall is described as discoloured and suffering negligence – lack of care and maintenance making it sound unattractive. On the door, the fact that there is no knocker or bell gives an unwelcoming feel and being described as blistered and distained would also make it appear uninviting. However the street, which the door lies on, is a contrast to what has just been described. The buildings in the street are described as ‘freshly painted shutters and well polished brasses’ making the whole street sound like it has an air of general cleanliness. In the First chapter, also ‘The Story of the door’ there is another opposite. This is between Mr Hyde and the young girl. It says ‘one little man .. stumping along at a good walk’ and ‘a girl of maybe eight or ten .. running as hard as she was able’ this is opposing because there are two different genders, ages and paces. In the chapter ‘Dr. Jekyll was quite at ease’ R.L Stevenson describes another opposite with Mr Utterson and the other people that had been to Dr Jekyll’s dinner. ‘In the man’s rich silence, after the expense and the strain of gaiety.’ This tells us that Mr Utterson is happy to be quiet, as the other guests that have left were quite loud and talked to him a lot. Also in this chapter and the following chapter, another opposite is the reaction and personality of Dr Jekyll. Speaking with Utterson, Dr Jekyll is put across as ‘every mark of capacity and kindness’, which makes him warm and loving, then in the incident of the letter he is rather shifty and reacts differently to Utterson that he did before. In the ‘Search for Mr Hyde’ there are two different characters in contrast, Dr Lanyon and Mr Utterson. For example it says ‘received his crowding patients’ referring to Dr Lanyon. This puts across to the reader that Dr Lanyon is a very open, friendly person, where as, as we can tell from the ‘Dr Jekyll was quite at ease’ chapter Mr Utterson is different, he is much quieter and would prefer to be on his own. Another opposite that R.L Stevenson puts in the book is in the chapter ‘The Carew murder case’. At the beginning of the chapter the setting is peaceful. ‘The details were few and startling’ this portrays that it was a very still, open night with only beautiful features. It describes a maid looking out of her window into the pretty night. Her views on the night we’re very optimistic and loving. ‘ She was romantically given’ by saying this it puts across to the reader that the night is quiet which would make it easy to think and by saying ‘romantically given’ puts across that she has romantic view on life. The scene then changes drastically. Before the night was calm but all of a sudden it transforms, much like the transformation of Dr Jekyll to Mr Hyde. The night turns dark when Mr Hyde enters the scene. It was like a presence of evil had come into the lane. ‘The horror of these sights and sounds’ this describes what the maid saw Mr Hyde doing to the old man. R.L Stevenson shows many opposites in the strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. These help to keep the reader thinking and to surprise the reader.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Frankenstein Monologue †the Monster Essay

‘But your not what I thought it would be, I thought I was making an angel !’ were the first words I heard when I came to life. He doesn’t think I’m an angel, well if he doesn’t think I’m good enough to be his angel then so be it. Nobody will be able to judge me, pick on me when I run away, far away into the deepest depths of the forest where the wolves attack. As i ran up to the small house, when I heard her voice she sounded so sweet, she was so sweet. She was the first person who actually cared for me, who actually talked to me without trying to kill me. She believed I was good, then he came and hurt me. He thought I was nothing, that I had no feelings but little did he know I would destroy the whole town. He didn’t even let me talk, he just took one look at me and thought I was bad, that I would hurt people but as soon as he shot me I changed. I no longer was the creature that tried to love and be loved by all, no I was the creature that people would fear most! I would care for no one, as they didn’t care about me. They turned me bad, they turned me evil! I would get revenge, I would get revenge for the very first words I heard. I didn’t think about anything at that moment, I only thought about what I was about to do. When I saw him playing he seemed so peaceful but they are all the same, they all think the same. It was the very first time I laughed. It felt good to finally get revenge on frankenstein, to destroy his world like he destroyed mine. The day finally came, the day that Frankenstein fears most. The day when I killed his brother was the day he promised he would make me a partner. That day 2 years ago was the first time I acted like a human being and I did it out of all of the rage and anger that had been building up inside of me. I would finally feel complete once she comes alive, once I can finally hold her in my arms.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Critical study of Microsporidia and other single-celled, obligate intracellular, eukaryotic parasites The WritePass Journal

Critical study of Microsporidia and other single-celled, obligate intracellular, eukaryotic parasites Introduction Critical study of Microsporidia and other single-celled, obligate intracellular, eukaryotic parasites IntroductionDiscovery and classificationMicrosporidia in FishDevelopmental cycleSpore morphologyRationaleMaterials and MethodsResultsDiscussion ReferencesRelated Introduction Microsporidia are single-celled, obligate intracellular, eukaryotic parasites which infect a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts (Canning Lom 1986; Lom Dykova 1992; Desportes-Livage 2000 and Shaw Kent 1999). Amongst their hosts are a range of animal species such as rodents, rabbits, primates (including humans) but the most common hosts are insects and fish. Microsporidia belong to the phylum Microspora which are characterised by the production of infective spores which possess an elaborate extrusion apparatus (Weiss 2001). Identification of microsporidia up to the genus level is based on their ultrastructural characteristics and electron microscopy (EM) is considered the gold standard technique for species identification (Lom and Dykova 1992). Discovery and classification Microsporidia were discovered in 1857 and over 1200 species are known to date (Shaw Kent 1999). 156 species infect fish and these fall within 14 genera (Table 1) (reviewed in Lom 2002; Lom Nilsen 2003). Originally, Microsporidia were considered to be protozoa but they have been, not far long ago, reclassified as fungi in the general phylum Microsporidia (Keeling Fast 2002 and Sprague Becnel 1998). Possession of a chitin spore wall by microsporidia potentially links them to fungi. They are considered to be true eukaryotes because they have a membrane-bound nucleus, intra-cytoplasmic membrane system and chromosome separation on mitotic spindles. However, they have a less complex and smaller genome than other eukaryotes (Garcia 2002; Keeling 2009). Microsporidia in Fish Fish become infected with microsporidia when they ingest spores from other infected fish, that is to say, by direct per oral transmission (Dykova 1995). The parasites then invade the host cell’s cytoplasm and eventually displace the nucleus and other organelles during their course of development. The cytoplasm is reduced to a thin layer around the parasites. The host cell surrounds the parasites with mitochondria too, from which the latter obtains energy. Formation of large hypertrophic cells known as xenomas (Fig. 1) ensues (Lom Nilsen 2003). These cells can reach sizes of 400 – 500  µm and can be seen grossly as white cysts (Matthews Matthews 1980 and Ralphs Matthews 1986). Xenomas, cyst-like structures, comprise the hypertrophic host cell contents together with Microsporidia at multiple stages of development (Lom Dykova 2005). A symbiotic relationship develops between the parasite and host, which exhibit physiological integration. This helps the host to confine the parasites in only the infected cells, thereby limiting their spread to other cells and tissues. The parasites are provided with optimal growth conditions reminiscent of a culture tube in addition to protection from host immune attacks, since they are masked with host component (Lom Dykova 1992). Figure 1: Xenomas in the body cavity of the golden orfe. Figure 1: Large hypertrophic cells (xenomas) in the body cavity of the golden orfe. (Picture provided by Dr. R. Kirk, Kingston University London). Xenomas cause wasting of fish tissue leading to huge losses in catch value as well as reduced growth rates. Some cause serious lesions which result into the demise of infected fish when they destroy the host cells (Lom Dykova 1992). Microsporidiosis is considered to be a chronic lethal infection by Shaw and Kent 1999. Dykova and Lom (1978) stated that not all fish Microsporidia species cause xenomas. 9 out of the 14 genera of fish Microsporidia cause xenomas in table (1). Table 1: Microsporidia genera and their fish hosts. Microsporidia genus Fish host Glugea Stickleback, pond smelt, flounder, ayu Heterosporis Japanese eel, Jewel cichlid Ichthyosporidium Corkwing wrasse Kabatana Chinook, Masu, sockeye pink salmon; rainbow trout Loma Atlantic cod; haddock; pink, Coho, red, dog, sockeye Chinook salmon; rainbow trout Microfilum Lutjanus fulgens (Teleost) Microgemma Greater sand-eel Microsporidium Coho, red, dog Chinook salmon; rainbow trout; nilem; shiped catfish Neonosemoides Cichlid, tilapia Nosemoides Cichlid Nucleospora Salmon, Atlantic halibut Ovipleistophora Golden shiner, European chub Pleistophora Salmon, bream, pacific cod, turbot, roach Tetramicra Turbot Table 1. The 14 known genera of Microsporidia that infect fish (reviewed in Lom 2002; Lom Nilsen 2003), of which 9 (shown in red) cause xenomas in their hosts (reviewed in Lom 2002; Lom Dykova 2005). Developmental cycle Microsporidia undergo a complicated life cycle which involves merogony or schizogony and sporogony. Merogony is the proliferative stage during which numerous parasites are produced by binary or multiple fission whereas sporogony involves the production of mature spores. Both stages take place inside the host cell (Lom Dykova 1992). Initially, the sporoplasm is extruded by breakage and eversion of the polar tube through the thinnest apical part of the spore, with a build up of high pressure inside the spore being the driving force behind this mechanism. The polar tube pierces the host cell and literally injects the sporoplasm into it. This marks the start of development within the host (Lom Dykova 1992). Generally Microsporidia are small organisms and the largest developmental stages measure up to 50  µm (Dykova 1995). Spore morphology The spore (Fig. 2)is the infectious stage of Microsporidia, and the only stage viable outside of the host, due to possession of a tough outer wall. The spore wall is solid, occurs in one piece and consists of a thin outer glycoproteinous exospore and a thick inner chitin endospore. Spores occur in different shapes such as rod-shaped and spherical but oval or ellipsoidal are the most common. They measure between 3 and 10  µm in length and possess an elaborate hatching apparatus. The polaroplast, polar filament and posterior vacuole are the three most important parts of the spore involved in infection (Lom Dykova 1992; Dykova 1995). The spore has a very intricate morphology (Canning Lom 1986), but the most conspicuous part is the polar tube which extends obliquely from the anchoring disc at the anterior end to the posterior end of the spore, where it coils beneath the spore wall. A single or diplokaryon nucleus occurs in the sporoplasm between the polaroplast and the posterior vacu ole (Dykova 1995). Figure 2: A generalised diagram of a Microsporidia spore. Figure 2: Diagram of an oval-shaped spore showing a diprokaryon nucleus, the wall and other components involved in infection such as the polar tube and posterior vacuole (picture obtained from). Rationale Microsporidia have a huge impact on aquaculture since they cause severe diseases in fish, resulting in a reduction in the growth of fish stocks and productivity in the fish farming sector (Lom Dykova 1992; Dykova 1995). The economic significance of Microsporidia has therefore promoted extensive research into the pathology that they cause to their hosts (Lom 2002). This research project was conducted with the aim of investigating the nature and the extent of damage caused by xenomas in fish and the host’s response to infection (microsporidiosis) using histological techniques and light microscopy, as well as identifying the Microsporidia species infecting the golden orfe. Since there is limited research on Microsporidia, this would help provide more information regarding their pathology which could consequently be vital in controlling the impact they have on fish farming Materials and Methods Fish (golden orfe) obtained from a pond at Burton Bradstock in Dorset were dissected to remove gill and body cavity tissues infected with Microsporidia. These were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for 48 hours and stored in industrial methylated spirit (IMS). The gill tissue was then decalcified overnight in Osteosoft (Merck, Germany) and again stored in 70% IMS. The tissues were then dehydrated in a series of alcohol of ascending concentrations, embedded in wax and serially sectioned at 5 to 10  µm (appendix 1). Staining with Masson’s tricrhome (appendix 2) was done before examining the sections using light microscopy (phase contrast). Image analysis technique was used to critically examine the stained sections in order to identify and evaluate the histopathological changes caused by Microsporidia. Results Initial macroscopic examination of the fish revealed compression of the organs of the body cavity by the xenomas; cyst-like structures which occur as circular or ovoid lumps (figure 1). Histological examination of the stained serial sections of the body cavity tissue revealed the localisation of the cysts (xenomas) mostly with in the subepithelial connective tissue of the gut (figure 3a). In many sections, the cysts were seen to occur in large numbers and in close proximity with one another (figure 3b). This was an indication that the body cavity tissues, and the fish in general, were heavily infected. The cysts appeared to be intact and were surrounded by a continuous membrane (figures 3b 4). This showed confinement of Microsporidia parasites within the infected hypertrophied cell. The xenomas contained large numbers of parasites which appeared to be at different stages of development (figure 4), for example meronts and spores. The merogonial stages of development were seen as whitish round or amorphous masses within the cysts. However, individual meronts could not be discerned (figure 4). The Microsporidia spores, which stained deep red with Masson’s trichrome (Joseph et al. 2006), were evident within the entire xenoma (figure 4). Unfortunately, the internal morphology of the spores could not be examined with light microscopy. Host cell organelles such as nuclei were not observed, as these were probably displaced by the developing parasites. Secondary xenomas, cysts developing within another cyst, were also seen and these too contained developing parasites (figure 6). This was an indication that the xenomas were developing or mature. Fibroblasts were observed within the connective tissue surrounding the xenomas (figure 5). These, presumably, played a role in laying down blue-staining collagen fibres around the xenomas as part of the inflammatory response from the host towards the parasites, which is known as a granulomatous response (figure 7). Unfortunately, no xenomas were found within the gills on histological examination, even though cysts were observed before the tissues were removed from the fish. This could have been due to destruction of these cysts, which were probably young, during surgical removal and/or chemical processing of the tissues. Telangiectasis (gill lamellar dilations) was observed in some slides, on closer examination, but this was not to be mistaken for xenomas. These observations were also made by other authors such as Abdel-Ghaffar et al. (2011); Gandhi, Locatelli Feist (1995) and Peyghan et al. (2009) Discussion Microsporidia infect a variety of marine and fresh water fish. This study used the fresh water ornamental fish, the golden orfe (Leuciscus idus), to examine the histopathological effect that Microsporidia have on fish in general. However, there is not much research that has been carried out regarding the histopathological effect that microsporidia have on golden orfe. The xenomas (cyst-like structures) observed grossly within the body cavity of the fish were generally spherical, as was noted by Matos et al (2003) too. They presumably exerted pressure onto the organs involved in feeding such as the gut, liver and intestines, hence impairing their vital functions (Ralphs Matthews 1986). This not only led to morphological modifications but also functional failure due to thickening of the gut wall and eventual occlusion of the lumen. This may be the limiting factor which affects growth in the infected fish and the indirect cause of their death (Dykova 1995). Occurrence of xenomas in large numbers and close proximity to each other (as seen in figure 3b) was suggestive of a heavy infection, which resulted in the death of the fish. This is in agreement with Lom Dykova (1992) who stated that Microsporidia provoke severe disease in wild and farmed fish populations causing major losses. According to the observations made in this study, parasites at different stages of development occurred within the xenomas. Merogonial stages which appeared as white masses and deep red staining spores were seen inside the xenomas which were surrounded by a continuous membrane. The parasites were confined within these cyst-like structures inside infected cells and this limited their spread to other tissues within the host. This mechanism is used by the host to control the infection. However, the parasites use it too as a means of evading recognition and destruction by the host’s immune cells such as macrophages, as stated by Lom Dykova (1992). The parasites replace the cell organelles and cause hypertrophy of the infected cell, before destroying it. The host cell type is difficult to recognise following transformation into a xenoma (Dykova 1995). The xenoma and its components are morphologically and physiologically integrated to from a separate entity which develops at the ex pense of the host (Lom Dykova 2005). The observation of a granulomatous reaction, a process achieved by fibroblasts laying down collagen fibres around the xenoma wall, is a type of host response towards the parasite and is in agreement with observations made by Lom and Dykova (1992, 2005) and Shaw Kent (1999). One of the demerits of this study was that the morphology of the spores was vague and their internal structures could not be examined well enough, due to the low resolving power of the light microscope. This rendered identification of the Microsporidia species infecting the fish studied in this study impossible. Lom Dykova (1992) stated that identification of Microsporidia was based on the ultrastructural features of the spores and/or the characteristic cell structure of the developmental stages, for example the polar tube. Electron microscopy is the gold-standard method to use in species identification of Microsporidia. In addition to this, Masson’s trichrome stain However, this study showed that Microsporidia infection in fish led to hypertrophy of infected cells, with the formation of the xenomas. These observations concur with those of Lom Dykova (1992); Lom Nilsen (2003) and other researchers, for example, Abdel-Ghaffar et al. (2011); Gandhi, Locatelli Feist (1995) and Peyghan et al. (2009). From the commercial point of view, Microsporidia are considered parasites of significant importance by Lom Dykova (1992) and Dykova (1995) who stated that microsporidia infection reduced the growth of fish stocks which resulted in losses within the fish sector. Currently, not much research has been done in regard to the histopathological effect that Microsporidia cause to their fish hosts, and other animals in general and therefore a lot more remains to be learnt about these pathogens. Fields that require much more extensive research include the mechanisms by which xenomas are formed and the nature of the xenomas, how the parasites evade the host immune system, invasion of host cells by parasites using their extrusion apparatus, host response towards infection, not to mention but a few. Lom (2002) proposed that a detailed knowledge of fish Microsporidia morphology and their taxonomy would greatly facilitate species determination. This would help provide vital information that would be used to design and produce drugs in order to reduce the impact that Microsporidia have on agriculture and aquaculture. References Abdel-Ghaffar, F., Bashtar, AR., Mehlhorn, H., AL-Rasheid, K. and Morsy, K. (2011) Microsporidian parasites: a danger facing marine fishes of the Red Sea. Parasitology Research 108, 219 – 225. Canning, E. and Lom, J. (1986) The microsporidia of vertebrates. Academic Press, New York and London, pp 289. Desportes-Livage, I., 2000. Biology of microsporidia. Contributions to Microbiology 6, 140–165. Dykova, I. and Lom, J. (1978) Tissue reaction of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. to infection with Glugea anomala (Moniez, 1887). Journal of Fish Diseases 1, 83 – 90. Dykova, I. (1995) Phylum Microspora. In: Woo, P.T.K., editor: Fish diseases and disorders. Protozoan and Metazoan Infections. Wallingford: CAB International, pp 149 – 176. Garcia, L.S. (2002) Laboratory Identification of the Microsporidia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40 (6), 1892 – 1901. Ghandi, S., Locatelli, L. and Feist, S.W. (1995) Occurrence of Loma sp. (Microsporidia) in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at a site in south west England. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 15(2), 58 – 60. Keeling, P. (2009) Five questions about microsporidia. PLoS Pathogens 5 (9), e1000489. Keeling, P.J. and Fast, N.M. (2002) Microsporidia: Biology and Evolution of Highly Reduced Intracellular Parasites. Annual Review of Microbiology 56, 93 – 116. Lom, J. and Dykova, I. (1992) Protozoan Parasites of Fishes. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, pp 125 154. Lom, J. and Dykova, I. (2005) Microsporidia xenomas in fish seen in a wider perspective (Review). Folia Parasitologica 52, 69 – 81. Lom, J. and Nilsen, F. (2003) Fish Microsporidia: fine structural diversity and phylogeny (Review). International Journal for Parasitology 33, 107 – 127. Lom,   J. (2002) A catalogue of described genera and species of microsporidians parasitic in fish (Review). Systematic Parasitology 53, 81 – 99. Matos, E., Corral, L. and Azevedo, C. (2003) Ultrastructural details of the xenoma of Loma myrophis (phylum Microsporidia) and extrusion of the polar tube during autoinfection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 54, 203 – 207. Peyghan, R., Nabavi, L., Jamshidi, K. and Akbari, S. (2009) Microsporidian infection in lizardfish, Saurida undosquamis of Persian Gulf. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Shiraz University 10(2), 180 – 185. Ralphs, J.R. and Matthews, R.A. (1986) Hepatic microsporidiosis due to Microgemma hepaticus n.g., n.sp. in juvenile grey mullet chelon labrosus. Journal of Fish Diseases 9 (3), 225 – 242. Shaw, R.W. and Kent, M.L. (1999) Fish Microsporidia. In Wittner, M. Weiss, L.M. Editors: The microsporidia and microsporidiosis. Washington, DC: ASM Press, pp 418 – 446. Sprague, V. and Becnel, J.J. (1998) Note on the name-author-date combination for the taxon microsporides Balbiani, 1882, when ranked as a phylum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 71, 91 – 94. Weiss, LM. (2001) Microsporidia: emerging pathogenic protists. Acta Tropica 78 (2), 89 – 201.

Monday, October 21, 2019

While the Wheel Keeps Spinning A Gradual Descent into Delightful Madness

While the Wheel Keeps Spinning A Gradual Descent into Delightful Madness Introduction: When Life Is at Stake Though it is truly hard to say that the motif of gambling is new to most of the world literature would be a considerable stretch, it goes without saying that Ellison adds a specific touch to it, making his story – that is, the story of a man who is slowly descending into madness – incredibly vivid. Instead of moralizing over the issueAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on While the Wheel Keeps Spinning: A Gradual Descent into Delightful Madness specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Watching the Lead Character: Through Misery Lens When knowing what the story is going to end with, it is quite shocking to see that it starts from a typical setting in the most typical place ever. Telling a story of a man whose wife is gradually dying while he cannot do a thing about it, the story immediately sets a gloomy background. Even though it is generally considered that the protagonist loses h is mind in the process of the game: â€Å"His faith in a bingo game turns into madness that ends with violence† (Thomas, 2008, 98). However, it can be argued that the character starts his descent into madness much earlier – to be more exact, from the very beginning of the novel. â€Å"I ain’t crazy† (Ellison, n.d., 469), he says, as if trying to convince himself. Ellison only sets the mood for the rest of the story, but also indicates that the character will be soon undergoing a series of changes. Escaping the Tight Grip of Despair Another circle of madness begins at the point where Ellison explains that the protagonist’s wife is terminally ill. Devoting a great chunk of the story to developing these two characters and the relationships between them Ellison makes it clear that her being unwell adds to the lead character’s torments. Another spin of insanity starts as the author reveals that the lead character drinks quite a lot. However, the major point, which is practically the gateway to insanity for the leading character, starts with a sudden stream of consciousness bursting under the pressure of the alcohol fumes: â€Å"The bottle gurgled again. He closed his eyes [†¦] and seeing the train coming, and running back as fast as he could go, and hearing the whistle blowing [†¦]† (Ellison, n.d., 470). One of the most graphic scenes in the book, this one in particular shows the readers how far the lead character’s insanity can go.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A Playing of Fortune: Take Him Where the Wind Blows Slowly gaining momentum, the madness of the lead character manifests itself in the most obvious way during the game. One can see it picking a faster pace in every single sentence: â€Å"He watched the wheel whirling past the numbers and experienced a burst of exaltation: This is God! This is the really truly God! He said it out loud, ‘This is God!’† (Ellison, n.d., 473). Finally, as the lead characters turn comes to take part in the game, he loses control over his feelings, and all hell breaks loose: â€Å"’Who am I?’ he screamed† (Ellison , n.d., 475). As the madness progresses, the turmoil enters into an even more intense phase. It is quite peculiar that the magnificence of madness that grips the lead character is spilled out in the form of a silly song: â€Å"Shoot the liquor to him, Jimmy boy! / Clap-clap-clap† (Ellison, n.d., 476). The pace of the entire story somehow reminds of a music tempo, which starts at the slowest pace: â€Å"The woman in front of him was eating roasted peanuts† (Ellison, n.d., 469), progresses to the fastest one: â€Å"He stumbled down the aisle and up the steps to the stage† (Ellison, n.d., 471) and ends with the slowest pace again: â€Å"he did not see the man’s slow wink† (Ellison, n.d., 477). The Moment the Earth Stood Still One must give Ellison credit for being extremely subtle with the ending of the novel. It is quite peculiar that author does not say that the lead character dies. Ellison does not need to state the painfully obvious; instead, he develops even more details and conveys the subtle message of despair, making the latter shoot the entire novel through: â€Å"He only felt the dull pain exploding in his skull, and he knew even as it slipped out of him that his luck had run out on the stage† (Ellison, n.d., 477). It is also quite peculiar that for a moment, the leading character does get in touch with reality, only to understand that he is going to be dead in the next few moments. A tragic climax to a tragic story, the ending leaves the impression that a delicate mechanism suddenly went wrong and finally broke into pieces.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on While the Wheel Keeps Spinning: A Gradual Descent into Delightful Madness specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion: Watch the Wheel Spinning Though King of the bingo game cannot be called the most thrilling read, it definitely has a unique flair and a specific touch to it, which makes the reader sink into the imaginary world, taking it for granted. Though told in a very brief manner and pointing at the most essential moments and details, the story still makes the audience sympathize with the lead character. With the help of specific pacing, the author adds a sharp edge to the narration, taking the reader into the imaginary reality. Let the game begin. Reference List Ellison, R. (n.d.) King of the bingo game. Retrieved from Thomas, P. L. (2008). Reading, learning, teaching Ralph Ellison. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Nucleus - Definition, Structure, and Function

The Nucleus - Definition, Structure, and Function The cell nucleus​ is a membrane bound structure that contains the cells hereditary information and controls the cells growth and reproduction. It is the command center of a eukaryotic cell and is commonly the most prominent organelle in a cell. The Cell Nucleus You can think of the cell nucleus as a kind of command center containing all the chromosomal and genetic information needed for the reproduction of life. Distinguishing Characteristics The cell nucleus is bound by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. This membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Like the cell membrane, the nuclear envelope consists of phospholipids that form a lipid bilayer. The envelope helps to maintain the shape of the nucleus and assists in regulating the flow of molecules into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pores.  The nuclear envelope is connected with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in such a way that the internal compartment of the nuclear envelope is continuous with the lumen of the ER. The nucleus is the organelle which houses chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of DNA, which contains heredity information and instructions for cell growth, development, and reproduction. When a cell is resting i.e. not dividing, the chromosomes are organized into long entangled structures called chromatin and not into individual chromosomes as we typically think of them. Nucleoplasm Nucleoplasm is the gelatinous substance within the nuclear envelope. Also called karyoplasm, this semi-aqueous material  is similar to cytoplasm and is composed mainly of water with dissolved salts, enzymes, and organic molecules suspended within. The nucleolus and chromosomes are surrounded by nucleoplasm, which functions to cushion and protect the contents of the nucleus. Nucleoplasm also supports the nucleus by helping to maintain its shape. Additionally, nucleoplasm provides a medium by which materials, such as enzymes and nucleotides  (DNA and RNA subunits), can be transported throughout the nucleus. Substances are exchanged between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm through nuclear pores. The Nucleolus Contained within the nucleus is a dense,  membrane-less structure composed of RNA and proteins called the nucleolus. The nucleolus contains nucleolar organizers, which are parts of chromosomes with the genes for ribosome synthesis on them. The nucleolus helps to synthesize ribosomes by transcribing and assembling ribosomal RNA  subunits. These subunits join together to form a ribosome during protein synthesis. Protein Synthesis The nucleus regulates the synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm through the use of messenger RNA (mRNA). Messenger RNA is a transcribed DNA segment that serves as a template for protein production. It is produced in the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pores of the nuclear envelope. Once in the cytoplasm, ribosomes and another RNA molecule called transfer RNA work together to translate mRNA to produce proteins. Eukaryotic Cell Structures The cell nucleus is only one type of cell organelle. The following cell structures can also be found in a typical animal eukaryotic cell: Centrioles - help to organize the assembly of microtubules.Chromosomes - house cellular DNA.Cilia and Flagella - aid in cellular locomotion.Cell Membrane - protects the integrity of the interior of the cell.Endoplasmic Reticulum - synthesizes carbohydrates and lipids.Golgi Complex - manufactures, stores and ships certain cellular products.Lysosomes - digest cellular macromolecules.Mitochondria - provide energy for the cell.Ribosomes - responsible for protein production.Peroxisomes - detoxify alcohol, form bile acid, and use oxygen to break down fats.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The Efficacy Of Economic Sanctions As Instruments Of Foreign Policy in Essay

The Efficacy Of Economic Sanctions As Instruments Of Foreign Policy in The ase of Iran - Essay Example trument for Foreign Policy Although using of economic sanctions, as an instrument for foreign policy, tends to face various criticisms within the global realm, it can also be implemented by the countries to achieve multiple goals with an intention to strengthen its political, economic and trade relations with other global countries. Conceptually, economic sanctions were generally used by countries in order to obtain better control of its economic sources from being exploited by foreign investors, thereafter making the domestic economy more dependent on the partnered nations. Arguably, it also enables the targeted country to influence stable and sustainable growth in the foreign market. With respect to the implementation of the sanction by numbers of global countries, it has been widely recognised that the sanctions are quite effective in terms of empowering nation’s power of domination and dealing with the negative influences of the particular country(s) (United States General Accounting Office, 1992). In this regard, the major advantageous implications, which can also be classified as the major motivations to countries applying economic sanctions as a tool for foreign policy measures, have been briefly demonstrated in the following discussion. The use of sanctions always tends to obtain adequate facility to the nation for accumulating a stable support in demonstrating authoritative supremacy and differentiating capability of the nation against the sanctioned country(s). Hence, it can also be used as a tool to obtain global power advantages to a substantial extent. Moreover, it also enables the country to uphold international policies through taking adequate measures against the targeted country, regulating controlled trade measures with the imposition of taxation...This research paper aims to to bring adequate insights regarding the efficacies and implications of economic sanctions as an instrument to regulate foreign relationships, taking the example o f Iran in the recent global context. The policy analysis sources in this globalisation era has long been concerned regarding the usage of economic sanctions by the countries with the aim of achieving favourable and more constructive outcomes. Various countries have experienced numbers of disagreements through the implementation of economic sanctions as a measure to control foreign relationships, during the period of 1990s Although using of economic sanctions, as an instrument for foreign policy, tends to face various criticisms within the global realm, it can also be implemented by the countries to achieve multiple goals with an intention to strengthen its political, economic and trade relations with other global countries. Conceptually, economic sanctions were generally used by countries in order to obtain better control of its economic sources from being exploited by foreign investors, thereafter making the domestic economy more dependent on the partnered nations Although the implementation of economic sanctions is effective to protect countries from different external threats, it is also essential for the countries to be supported by a large number of global participants. The example of Iran can be further stated as a major concern which had faced numerous challenges due to the political turmoil with the US.

Acquisition or Merger Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Acquisition or Merger - Essay Example Sony and Sony Ericsson entered into a merger where Sony acquired stake of the Ericsson. The merger would see the two companies combine forces in technology in order to be competitive in the telecommunication sector (Schemerhorn 218). The Sony revolution began in 1946 after the establishment of the Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation in Nihonbashi in Tokyo. To embark on research and invention of telecommunication devices, 190,000 yen was set aside as the starting capital. It was during this period that two devices were invented, Magnetic tape and first tape recorder. This showed a new beginning for the company, and it was after that it was branded the name Sony Corporation. After this advancement, the company afterwards invented the first portable television which led to the establishment of Sony Corporation of America in the United States (Schemerhorn 18).   A great improvement occurred for Sony over the decades, and numerous inventions were made among them being the invention of the Triton color television system which saw it get the initial Emmy award. In attendance, invention of the world’s original compact disc player as well as the Columbia pictures entertainment which was then renamed as Sony Pictures Entertainment in the year 1991. The company remained strong and prosperous following the wise strategies of management that was utilized. Sony worked together with Google to achieve its business goals in the sale of the cellular phone which saw Sony achieve affluent merchandising. Moreover, Sony was able to expand its area of connectivity. Both companies were to benefit from the partnership. Many would have thought that maybe the company was getting weak, but the Chairman of the company argued that the partnership was to help Sony achieve its market objectives. From then henceforth, Sony realized great market from all over the globe making it a strong independent company before merging with Sony Ericsson

Friday, October 18, 2019

Border security issues (week 6) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Border security issues (week 6) - Essay Example There is a systemic technique of impunity at the state and local levels where the anti-press crimes are under investigation (Lauria, O’Connor, Campbell & Barbeito, 2010). The report by Lauria, O’Connor, Campbell and Barbeito (2010), shows that the US-Mexico border is not only unsafe for journalists, but for citizens. The special report found out that the police and justice system do not uphold the law in cases concerning crimes by cartels. Mexico’s current President Enrique Peà ±a Nieto, continues use of the military to combat drug lords’ activities, which is not the best method to eliminate threats made to journalists from drug cartels. Politicians from United Stated and Mexico can take several measures to fix the broken immigration systems. It is still possible, even when a vacuum of truth exists since some of the officials in both governments may know those who operate the drug cartels. The problem is that there is no transparency if it is only one government that deals with a broken immigration system. However, if the two governments increased their collaboration between each other to curtail border insecurity against the cartels they would fix the immigration system easily. Nevertheless, these calculated measures would be useless if the general population is not involved. Drug cartels operate successfully when both sides are not in good terms because if there are legal consequences in one state, the drug lords cross the border to the other state and continue with their criminal activities. Therefore, if politicians from both states would collaborate on drug policy implementation and other viable strategies, it would be easier to fix the broken immigration system. Meyer, M. (2013). Mexico’s new military police force: the continued militarization of public security in Mexico. The Washington Office on Latin America,

Conference Moderator Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Conference Moderator - Essay Example People do everything in both cases-people stock the shelves, prepare the food, serve the food, help customers, man the cash registers and sweep the floor in 2003 just like they did in 1950. It's the same on any construction site. In 1950, guys with circular saws and hammers built houses. Today it is guys with circular saws and nail guns. No big difference. An airport in 1950 and an airport today are nearly identical. People take your tickets, handle the baggage, maintain the planes, and pilot them in both cases. Coney Island in 1950 looks like any amusement park today, with people operating the rides, selling the concessions and keeping the park clean. The point of the above passage is that certain industries will likely never be replaced by robots or technology alone. Despite all of the technological innovations that have taken place in the latter half of the past century, there are still a lot of jobs that are largely unaffected by automation. These are often called people-powered industries. Perhaps the most astonishing part is that these types of jobs make up over one-half of the jobs in America (Brain, Robots in 2015, 2008).

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Distance Learning versus Classroom Instruction Article

Distance Learning versus Classroom Instruction - Article Example The general impression from the study was initially apprehension given that the authors clearly indicated at first that from the eleven students who were exposed to distance learning, only â€Å"six students completed the course, three never started, and two students failed to complete the required assignments. Reported reasons for not completing the course included discomfort with the logistics of distance education and lack of available time† (Schardt, 2002, p. 456).   The percentage, at the onset was already almost 50% participation revealing factors for discontinued pursuance as ranging from uneasiness due to perception and applied logistics of distance learning and of course, the element of time. On the other hand, all sixteen participants for the traditional classroom instruction completed the course. The findings were surprising given that initial reaction and response of participants to distance learning were controversial. A review of the findings indicate that â₠¬Å"the differences in knowledge retention can be credited to three important attributes of distance education: more time for learning and reflection is available, individual attention stimulates learning, and motivation enhances the learning process† (Schardt, Garrison, & Kochi, 2002, p. 456). After analyzing the outcome, one realized that the advantages accorded by distance learning are focused on the ability to synthesize and integrate all the information that has been provided at the most convenient time.

Innovation in Construction Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Innovation in Construction - Research Paper Example In enhancing the value brought in by this process, a lot of modifications have been made on it time after time. These improvements have consequently come along with some advantages together with shortcomings. It is therefore logical that, as these changing procedures are implemented in the industry; proper steps are taken in dealing with areas where gaps exist. Recycling in construction In construction, recycling basically denotes the taking apart and reprocessing of recoverable waste resources produced at the time of construction and modification. Bits and pieces of unused materials, packaging, old resources and remains collectively comprise of the latent recoverable materials. All these can be used, together with other new materials in the erection of new structures. Aside from the use of the recycled matters in constructing new structures, this process can also be applied in the aspect of renovation where structures like windows and doors, masonry resources and appliances are also recycled (CMRA, 2011). In many cases, wastes accrued from construction sites are directed into landfills which consequently are burdened with increased loading and functions. At the same time, some waste construction materials carry chemicals which if not well handled would only help in enhancing the perennially increasing levels of pollution. An example of this is the kinds of chemical substances which emanate from treated wood. Preventing these scenarios has made recycling the most logical precautions in handling wastes obtained from construction sites. In achieving these goals, personnel in the construction industry either recycle the materials directly into similar products for use again while other are converted into other functional products. Recycling of wastes in the construction industry follows a rather general procedure. The process begins with onsite separation where recyclable materials are separated from other wastes. This is basically the most important aspect of the process and though initially posed challenges, has today witnessed massive improvements thanks to the technological advancement that the world of construction has at its disposal (CMRA, 2011). Here, construction officers, highly conversant with material sorting strategy set up containers for recycling, containers which they clearly label as per the requirements. Ones the reusable wastes are obtained, they are either reprocessed for reuse in the same form they were initially of modified to be used in newer forms. Technology is rapidly advancing in construction recycling. This is despite the limited available technologies at the local levels. One of the technologies synonymous with recycling in the construction industry in modern times includes the â€Å"Recore technology† known for the construction of walls by use of recovered waste materials. This technology is known for the generation of eco friendly wall coverings which carry which also extend some other advantages to the industry and the consumers. The wall coverings produced by this technology are generally durable an added advantage to the fundamental levels of energy saved in the production of these walls. Aside from the recycled walls technology, there also exists the advanced concrete technology which focuses on the production of recycled concrete. The advanced concrete technology applies the heating and rubbing procedures in producing the end

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Distance Learning versus Classroom Instruction Article

Distance Learning versus Classroom Instruction - Article Example The general impression from the study was initially apprehension given that the authors clearly indicated at first that from the eleven students who were exposed to distance learning, only â€Å"six students completed the course, three never started, and two students failed to complete the required assignments. Reported reasons for not completing the course included discomfort with the logistics of distance education and lack of available time† (Schardt, 2002, p. 456).   The percentage, at the onset was already almost 50% participation revealing factors for discontinued pursuance as ranging from uneasiness due to perception and applied logistics of distance learning and of course, the element of time. On the other hand, all sixteen participants for the traditional classroom instruction completed the course. The findings were surprising given that initial reaction and response of participants to distance learning were controversial. A review of the findings indicate that â₠¬Å"the differences in knowledge retention can be credited to three important attributes of distance education: more time for learning and reflection is available, individual attention stimulates learning, and motivation enhances the learning process† (Schardt, Garrison, & Kochi, 2002, p. 456). After analyzing the outcome, one realized that the advantages accorded by distance learning are focused on the ability to synthesize and integrate all the information that has been provided at the most convenient time.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Music And Social Identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Music And Social Identity - Essay Example It is a reflection of the different beliefs of the people and projects ideas and images which ultimately form what is called the social identity by which people identify themselves amongst their peers. Social identity means the characteristic attributes of a person that belong to a certain group. The process of social identification is one through which we express or relate to along with other people. Like for example taking Christians and Muslims groups we find that in each member of the Christian group they would be sharing basic commonalities while being different to the Muslim group. There are many types of social identities like ethnic, religious, political, personal and stigmatized etc. Shepherd, Horn, and Laing (2003) discuss that music has been a part of every society. It is present in each and every culture around the globe although the form varies from region to region and changes with time. As it can be traced back for as far as we can go hence the scientists are of view t hat it has existed for around 50,000 years. The roots of music sprung somewhere in Africa. From there onwards it has always been a very important inherent part of the human beings as it exists even today and has progressed a lot. How music cultivates depends upon a specific culture of a region, the social aspects the economic background and the technological advancements. The type and form that the music evolves into is dependent on the response from the people of that region, their beliefs and preferences.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Psychology and Theology Essay Example for Free

Psychology and Theology Essay 1. My personal experience involves a combination of secular and religious study in the area of counseling.   This experience and education has led to a conclusion that although there are a number of opposing factors in the beliefs and theories used in both, the two are neither completely oppositional to each other nor mutually exclusive.   In many ways the views and methods of both can be combined to make a very effective counseling technique and a well rounded counselor (McMinn, 1996). Secular counseling has numerous theories on how people learn and that the ways they learn affect the methods needed to modify negative behaviors.    These techniques can work to some degree, such as offering a dollar for getting an A on a paper.   Children then become more motivated to get A’s.   These techniques often fail to create long term results however, as people often get tired and the excitement of the reward fades.   They then go back to old ways.   When the eternal rewards of spiritual counseling are added, however, the motivation for long term behavior change becomes much more long term. The two methods of counseling differ most greatly in life’s focus.   Secular counseling teaches that a strong sense of self will solve all problems, where as religious counseling teaches to focus everything around God and the problems will diminish (Kajer, 2006).   These can however be combined with the focus on God, while still encouraging the person to forgive himself and be comfortable with himself as the person God created.   This keeps the focus where it belongs while helping the person recognize himself as a creation from God. I have learned to find a combination of these views by realizing why secular counseling often fails, and realizing that although a person needs to be humble he still needs to respect what is God’s creation and take care of it. 2. All human beings have sinned, but not all of psychology is sinful or thinking  about humans as sinful.   Psychology is about the study of human behavior and because much of human behavior especially that requiring counseling is sinful, there is a degree of sin involved.   This does not make psychology sinful.   There are many psychologists and secular counselors with spiritual views and backgrounds.   Most of them are bound by legalities and job guidelines to keep the spiritual aspect of counseling out of the job, but not only because they are sinful humans or because they are thinking about sinful humans. Many of the theorists in psychology have developed theories that contradict many Biblical teachings, the most notable one being self actualization.   In this theory, the person’s main goal is to reach the perfect self at which time he has reached the ultimate existence. This additionally is based on the theory that human beings are inherently good and not evil and can naturally distinguish between right and wrong (Management, 2005). Obviously this kind of thinking is sinful as spiritual people are supposed to strive to be closer to God and to live according to his will in order to reach the ultimate existence. If a counselor can balance the basic idea of psychology (the study of human behavior) and the theological values, there is no reason psychology should be considered a sinful study or practice.   It does focus on the behavior of humans and how to change deviant behavior to make it more positive.   It is based on discovering how people learn and then taking that knowledge to help modify behavior.   It only becomes a sinful practice when those studying or teaching it contradict God’s teachings. 3. My goal as a counselor should be to help minimize the pain and negative  effects of suffering and to help prevent as many future problems as possible.   In order for a counselor to continue to function and perform the job successfully, it is important to remember and understand that there is no way to prevent every cause of pain and heal all suffering.   There is no way to completely take away the pain a child feels after losing a parent or prevent an accident from happening.   It would not be realistic for any counselor to think it is possible or even ideal to keep all pain from happening. People are allowed to suffer disappointments, set backs and losses in order for them to learn from them (Gress, 2007).   If   everything worked out exactly as people wanted them to and there were never any disappointments the world would be filled with a bunch of spoiled adults, who were unable to appreciate anything. Counselors who go into the profession with the belief they can solve every problem and make everyone’s pain completely go away are setting themselves up for failure and disappointment, because they are expecting to accomplish the impossible.   Those who set the realistic goals of providing comfort, minimizing grieving, speeding emotional healing, and modifying behavior when needed are the counselors most likely to stay in the field long term.   The ones who hope to solve everyone’s problems have a tendency to take the problems upon themselves and â€Å"burn out† relatively soon.   Counselors need to focus on the most significant problem for each person and work on one thing at a time. 4. The subject of a healthy sense of self is one major difference between  psychology and theology.   Both views involve people who are happy, and focused on a goal, but the views differ greatly in the center of the focus. Many psychological theories focus on making people feel good about themselves and then everything else in the world will fall into place.   In this case a healthy sense of self is essentially a â€Å"puffed up self†, or a person who thinks of himself as the most important person in the world and can do no wrong.   This involves making the person become the center of his Universe. The Biblical view of a healthy sense of self places God in the proper place as the center of man’s universe and when the focus is on God, everything else falls into place.   This requires the person to learn humility and to give God his proper credit for the role he plays in a person’s life.   The view here is that when a person is focused on living life for God, he will be happy and comforted in the knowledge that he is putting forth his best effort for God. A person with a true healthy sense of self would be a person who values himself as a creation of God and a worker for him.   This is a person who knows his place in the world, yet places the focus of the world on God.   As the person strives to be more like God, he appreciates what God has provided him and uses the talents God has given him.   This person is happy and well adjusted to the world around him.   He knows his talents and his mission and uses them to grow closer to God. This description of a healthy sense of self tends to lean more towards the Biblical view, but does place value on the person and God’s creation and teaches the person to have respect for himself.   This is consistent with God’s teaching that the body is his temple and that people need to care for their bodies and respect them. 5. Scripture can provide answers to essentially any problem that is faced by  people.   Verses that say â€Å"through God all things are possible† or â€Å"I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me† (NIV) provide people with the knowledge that they do not have to face problems alone and that there is hope.  Ã‚   When a counselor is allowed to use scripture and the hope it provides, the counselor has a great deal more comforting hope to provide the person who is suffering. The instruction and guidance provided by scripture can provide the counselor with a great deal of information and guidance to help the counselee though most of life’s situations.   It additionally provides more appropriate alternatives to deviant behavior and provides people with ways to resist the temptation of falling back into old unhealthy habits.   In more extreme cases the Bible can show examples of what has happened to people who could not change behavior or are unable to turn problems over to God. In addition to providing the counselor with the most powerful tool available, it can provide a source of comfort and hope for the counselor as well.   When a counselor begins to feel overwhelmed or helpless, the same verses that provide comfort to the counselees facing crisis can provide renewed strength and hope for the counselor. Scripture provides the hope, answers, and promises to help people overcome the greatest obstacles, but they need to follow the directions and examples the Bible provides. 6. Most secular counseling jobs do not allow counselors to use scripture or express their personal religious beliefs to counselees.   The purpose of this is to avoid pressuring people into complying with beliefs that go against their religious beliefs.   In the United States people do have the right of religious freedom.   The rights of others have to be respected by the counselor.   Using prayer in these settings could cause the counselor to lose his job, or the counselee could lose respect for the professionalism of the counselor. Religious counselors have more freedom in this area due to the fact that they are counseling in a spiritual based setting.   When people seek the help of these counselors, they know they are going to a person who uses the Bible as a reference and a basis for the counseling.   Payer is more accepted and sometimes expected in these counseling settings and can be very helpful with counselees who need the hope and guidance of God (Goliath, 2007). A counselor with a new counselee should ask the person if they would like to pray,   this provides the counselee the option of being prayed for if they would like it.   For those who do not feel comfortable with prayer or would not take the prayer seriously additionally have the option of passing on it. The counselor can pray for those who choose against prayer when the session is over.   During the private times of prayer the counselor can ask for guidance to help the person not only overcome the crisis, but to grow more comfortable with prayer and asking God for his help.   Everyone needs prayer, but if a person prefers private prayer or has different beliefs than the counselor, it can either cause the counselee to not return or can cause a setback in the counseling process.   Counselees need to feel comfortable during counseling sessions in order for progress to be made. 6. Sin is often the source of the problems for which people seek counseling.   In  order for the situation to be resolved and the person to get past it, the sin has to at some point be confronted.   The problem is how a counselor should go about confronting the sin.   If the sin is confronted before the counselee is willing to admit that sin is the cause of the problem, there is a chance he will leave and the problem will not get resolved.   If the counselor however spends too much time making the counselee comfortable and avoiding the issue, the sin will not be likely to be confronted and the situation still stands the chance of not getting resolved. In the very first session, the counselor needs to get a back ground of why the counselee has either sought or been referred for counseling.   One of the best ways to do this is to ask him.   Along with this is a good time to ask if there was any sin involved that needs to be forgiven.   If he is able to state the sin and talk about it then the sin should be confronted and resolved very early in the counseling.   Then healing can begin quickly. If the person denies sin as playing a part in the situation, then the instigating situation needs to be discussed in greater detail and possible reasons behind that including sin pointed out.   Once the person is able to understand there is sin in his life, then is the best time to talk about ways to have the sins forgiven both by God and anyone who was sinned against. The best way to confront sin is to ask questions and to provide guidance as  needed.   Direct confrontation often leads people to be offended and shut down, but  questions can lead them to discover the problem on their own.   Although it is never easy to confront someone on sin, a counselor or church leader must do it in order to help those in need overcome the sin (Adams, 1980)

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Pepsi Co History and Company Analysis

Pepsi Co History and Company Analysis Pepsi Co Inc. has established itself as a dominant snack food and soft drink distributor with its PepsiCo North America, Pepsi Co International, Frito-Lay, and Quaker Oats segments. (Refer to exhibit 1) In 2007, PepsiCo became the worlds largest snack and beverage seller bringing in revenues of more than $39.5 billion and with its Frito-Lay merger brands accounting for 29 percent of the companys total revenues and 36 percent of the companys operating profits. The company emphasizes maintaining spectacular performance operations that were accomplished thorough strategies aimed at product innovation, creating and sustaining close relationships with distributors, international growth, and beneficial acquisitions. The company sported an impressive business portfolio in 2008 which included its brands such as Pepsi soft drink products, Frito-Lay, Quaker Oats products, Doritos, Gatorade, Tropicana, SoBe, Lipton Brisk tea, Propel, Hickory Sticks, SunChips Multigrain snacks, Aquafina, the acq uisition of Pizza Hutt, Gatorade, and several other consumer goods. The PepsiCo International division is an ever-growing sector in emerging markets such as Russia, The Middle East, China, and Turkey. The company grew by 9 percent in 2007 with volume gains and acquisitions that allowed the company to attain a 22 percent increase in division revenues and 15 percent increase in operating profits. (Gamble 433) The Quaker Oats division attained 2007 sales of $1.8 billion, and held a 58 percent market share in its North America division since 2006 (Gamble 435). PepsiCo has successfully diversified itself with different product lines and methods to improve those product lines so that they ensure customer satisfaction. The company has developed a diversification strategy that is executed through acquisitions of similar or complimentary products. Expanding into these markets not only creates consumer satisfaction, but increases shareholder value as well. With well established, diverse markets PepsiCo has secured business affiliations that benefit the company and allow it to compete better than they would alone. Since 2008, they have focused on new product innovations that addressed consumer health and wellness concerns. PepsiCo has diversified into a multi-business corporations, offering products through their four main business segments; PepsiCo North America, PepsiCo International, Frito-Lay, and Quaker Foods North America. Refer to exhibit 1 to see a complete list of products PepsiCo has been able to offer through their diversification stra tegy. A key competitive strength of PepsiCo is that it has close relationships and partnerships with distributors. PepsiCo has also established successful strategic acquisitions and continues its expansion into profitable markets. The company has adjusted its product innovation to create healthier products in response to consumer demands, thus creating better consumer value and a higher rate of return. The company capitalizes on its consumer research and development which helps it to apply strategies such as the Power of One strategy which increases the opportunity for consumers to purchase more than one PepsiCo and Frito-Lay product at a time on each visit. Dominant corporate strategies that support their many acquisitions of well know products have led to diversification of the company. Products are customized to suit the consumers preferences; for example, the company has designed their product tastes to country specific satisfaction. Because PepsiCo has created and maintained strong br and loyalty with its consumers, it continues to possess a significantly large portion of the food and beverage market shares.   The companys business units have been able to successfully cut costs. Frito-Lay and Quaker had savings of   $40 million for their joint distribution and Quaker Oats saved $ 160 million in innovative packing materials and sharing specific product ingredients. The company also redesigned their shipping methods to reduce stock-outs in retail stores.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are many ways companies try to maximize the value of their shareholders.   Some of the strategies that CEOs of companies may use to maximize the value of their shareholders are reducing company costs while at the same time maintaining a stable revenue levels. Another way that companies maximize shareholder wealth is by partaking in acquisitions of companies. Acquirin companies however is an often risky business venture for a company to undertake. PepsiCo is an example of how acquiring various business ventures in turn benefited the shareholders of the company. The various acquisitions that PepsiCo partook in had a gross value of two billion nine hundred and twenty two dollars. This increased the revenues of PepsiCo substantially by a twenty billion dollar increase from 2000 to 2007.   This increase in revenues being brought in, in turn increases the value of the issued stock. You can see the gradual increase in the price of commo n stock in exhibit ____.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A strong driving factor in the maximization of shareholder value is the CEO Indra Nooyi. Her tenure as an employee of PepsiCo has yielded only improvements for the company as a whole. She was seen as a negotiator and involved in many of the acquisitions that were very profitable for PepsiCo. She built her reputation with various acquisitions such as the Tropicana acquisition in 1998 and the 2001 acquisition of Quaker Oats. She also spearheaded the public offering of Pepsis bottling operations. The hard work of Nooyi at PepsiCo has made the company a multi-billion dollar company. Bringing in the substantial additional revenue increased PepsiCos net worth which also made the stock of Pepsi rise in value also which is beneficial for those who invested good deals of money in this company.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   PepsiCo appeared to always have a handle on their revenues and knows at what levels to price their goods at as to not lose customers base. Looking at their financial summary, exhibit ___ you will notice that from 1998 to 2007 there has been a steady increase in the revenues brought in which affects the value of the shares of common stock as well that are increasing at a corresponding rate.   Pepsi Co has proved to be a company that truly does have the resources to remain a leader in the carbonated beverage industry. Even when Coca-Cola tried to be the leader in the carbonated beverage market holding a little more than forty percent of the market shares, PepsiCo held a little over 30 percent of the market shares.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Looking at Exhibit ____ you will see the break down of PepsiCos net cash provided by operating activities. You will notice that they have a decent amount of Management operating cash flows that can be disbursed or used for benefit of the company. Part of the managers operating cash flows could be used to try and acquire more food or beverage products that would make their product base more diverse. They could also use part of the money to put towards having Pepsi or Tropicana products served in new restaurant chains. PepsiCo clearly have a surplus of money from operating activities that could be put toward their Research and development team so that they can improve the products that they are already have. Another way they could disperse their managements cash flow is by looking to acquire or merge with a manufacturer of candy or a sweet of some sort. PepsiCo is well versed in the variety of snack foods that they offer when it comes to sal ty snack spending the time and money to find a sweet snack would benefit them. This would in turn would bring in more money to Pepsi and increase their stock prices which would in turn increase the value of their shareholders. If a sweet snack was added to Pepsis line of products it would compliment the notion of wanting to eat something sweet after you eat something salty, and vise versa. This would bring in more revenue which in turn would give PepsiCo more operating cash flows to work with n the future and become a very powerful company. We do not recommend PepsiCo to divest any Quaker brands since the acquisition provided PepsiCo a stable platform to enter the health foods and isotonic beverage market. PepsiCos portfolio is established in 2011 with a good mix of carbonated beverages, isotonic beverages, fruit flavored beverages, fruit juices, salty and savory snacks, cereals and other health foods and drinks. (Refer to exhibit __ If they were to divest any Quaker Oats brands. PepsiCo could harm its portfolio and decrease its shareholder value, lower stock prices and lower economies of scale. Also, it is possible that the brand could be acquired by another company and pose as a threat to PepsiCo. We recommend PepsiCo to acquire or form a merger with RedBull. Red Bull holds a 70 percent share of the world market for energy drinks, or functional beverages, a category it was largely responsible for building (Red Bull GMBH). The biggest isotonic beverage brand Gatorade is already under PepsiCo. Adding Red Bull to their portfolio would create higher shareholder value and increase revenues. The volume share for energy drinks on the PepsiCo portfolio was only 1% in 2007. We believe that there is great potential for an increase if Red Bull is acquired or merged with. Also, with PepsiCos strategy of better-for-you and good-for-you products, PepsiCo could encourage Red Bull manufacturers to use different types of healthier sweeteners which would increase sales and publicity for Red Bull and PepsiCos health awareness. Having Red Bull on their portfolio of products would also give PepsiCo a better market share and add value to the brand for appealing to various consumer demands. Refer to exhibit___ to see PepsiCos current market share.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   PepsiCos current portfolio has a wide variety of snacks, beverages, and cereal catering to all types of demands including health conscious consumers. Refer to exhibit 1 to see a full list of PepsoCos snacks,   beverage and Quaker Oats Brands. We recommend PepsiCo to acquire or merge with a candy company to add a different product to their portfolio. Mars Incorporated, has strong brands such as Mars, Snickers, MMs, Whiskas, Uncle Bens, Dove, Extra, Orbit, Flavia, Pedigree, and Royal Cannin on their portfolio. A merger or acquisition with Mars incorporated would give PepsiCo a wide variety and add to their existing brands which will make them achieve greater economies of scale. Through such a merger or acquisition, PepsiCo will be able to cater to the consumer population that they are unable to reach with their existing products. They will also be able to cater to consumers with pets with popular brands like Pedigree and Royal Cannin that are a part of Mars Incorporated.   Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The corporate strategy recommended for PepsiCo is the Best Cost Provider Strategy. The essence of a best cost provider strategy is giving customers more value for the money by satifsying buyer desires for appealing features/performance/quality service and charging a lower price for these attributes compared to rivals with similar caliber product offerings (Gamble111). We recommend PepsiCo to implement this strategy into their business by cutting costs and lowering prices to cater to those who enjoy PepsiCo products but are not able to afford them any longer due to the current recession. Also offering those products at a lower price will give them a competitive edge against Coca Cola which is one of their biggest rivals. In order for the Best Cost Provider Strategy to work, a company must have the capability to incorporate attractive or upscale attributes at a lower cost than rivals (Gamble111). PepsiCo has the capability to out compete Coca Cola by focusing on their core competencies through the value chain and by eliminating costs that do not add value. In addition to the recommendations above, we also recommend PepsiCo to focus more on their Good-for-you and Better-for-you products. With an increasing population of health conscious citizens, PepsiCo should enter a line of Organic ready to eat products and beverages apart from the Naked Juice products. Quaker Oats brand is already known for healthy food like oatmeal, cereals, granola bars, and etcetra. We recommend PepsiCo to focus more attention to ready made, ready to eat foods like noodles, organic tv dinners, and quick organic lunch options. EXHIBIT 1 Breakfast Bars/Granola Bars  Ã‚ ² Quaker Chewy Granola Bars  Ã‚ ² Quaker Dipps Granola Bars  Ã‚ ² Quaker Fruit Oatmeal Bars  Ã‚ ² Quaker Fruit Oatmeal Toastables  Ã‚ ² Quaker Oatmeal-to-Go Bars  Ã‚ ² Quaker True Delights Bars  Ã‚ ² Quaker True Delights Squares Coffee Drinks:  Ã‚ ² Starbucks Doubleshot  Ã‚ ² Starbucks Frappuccino  Ã‚ ² Starbucks Iced Coffee Energy Drinks:  Ã‚ ² Amp Energy Energy Drinks  Ã‚ ² No Fear Energy Drinks  Ã‚ ² SoBe Energy Drinks Tea/Lemonade:  Ã‚ ² Brisk  Ã‚ ² Lipton Iced Tea  Ã‚ ² Lipton PureLeaf  Ã‚ ² SoBe Tea  Ã‚ ² Tazo Tea Juice/Juice Drinks:  Ã‚ ² Amp Energy Juice  Ã‚ ² Dole Juice/ Juice Drinks  Ã‚ ² Dole Plus Fortified Juices  Ã‚ ² Dole Sensation Juice Drinks  Ã‚ ² IZZE Sparkling Juice  Ã‚ ² Ocean Spray Juice/Juice Drinks  Ã‚ ² Naked Juice  Ã‚ ² SoBe Juice Drinks  Ã‚ ² SoBe Lean Diet Juice Drink  Ã‚ ² Tropicana Trop50 Beverages  Ã‚ ² Tropicana Pure Premium Juices  Ã‚ ² Tropicana Twister Juice Drinks  Ã‚ ² Tropicana Tropics Oatmeal/Cereals:  Ã‚ ² Capn Crunch Cereal  Ã‚ ² King Vitaman Cereal  Ã‚ ² Kretschmer Toasted Wheat Germ  Ã‚ ² Life Cereal  Ã‚ ² Mothers Ready-to-Eat Hot Cereals  Ã‚ ² Quaker Essentials  Ã‚ ² Quaker Grits  Ã‚ ² Quaker Instant Oatmeal  Ã‚ ² Quaker Natural Granola Cereal Oatmeal/Cereals Cont:  Ã‚ ² Quaker Oatmeal  Ã‚ ² Quaker Oatmeal Breakfast Squares  Ã‚ ² Quaker Oatmeal-to-Go  Ã‚ ² Quaker Oh!s Cereal  Ã‚ ² Quaker Puffed Rice  Ã‚ ² Quaker Shredded Wheat Cereal  Ã‚ ² Quaker Squares Cereal  Ã‚ ² Quisp Cereal Other:  Ã‚ ² Amp Energy Gum  Ã‚ ² Aunt Jemima Mixes Syrups  Ã‚ ² Quaker Baking Mixes Rice Snacks:  Ã‚ ² Quaker Large Rice Cakes  Ã‚ ² Quaker Mini Delights  Ã‚ ² Quaker True Delights Rice Snacks  Ã‚ ² Quaker Tortillaz  Ã‚ ² Quaker True Delights Fiber Crisps Side Dishes:  Ã‚ ² Near East Side Dishes  Ã‚ ² Pasta Roni Side Dishes  Ã‚ ² Rice-A-Roni Side Dishes Snacks:  Ã‚ ² Baked! Doritos Tortilla Chips  Ã‚ ² Baked! Lays Potato Crisps  Ã‚ ² Baked! Ruffles Potato Chips  Ã‚ ² Baked! Tostitos Tortilla Chips  Ã‚ ² Baken-ets Pork Skins and Cracklins  Ã‚ ² Cheetos Snacks  Ã‚ ² Chesters Popcorn  Ã‚ ² Cracker Jack Candy Coated Popcorn  Ã‚ ² Doritos Tortilla Chips  Ã‚ ² El Isleno Plantain Chips  Ã‚ ² Frito-Lay, Fritos and Cheetos Snack Crackers  Ã‚ ² Frito-Lay, Fritos and Tostitos Dips Salsas  Ã‚ ² Frito-Lay Nuts Seeds  Ã‚ ² Fritos Corn Chips  Ã‚ ² Funyons Onion Flavored Rings  Ã‚ ² Gamesa Cookies and Wafers  Ã‚ ² Grandmas Cookies  Ã‚ ² Hickory Sticks  Ã‚ ² Hostess Potato Chips  Ã‚ ² Lays Kettle Cooked Potato Chips  Ã‚ ² Lays Potato Chips  Ã‚ ² Lays Stax Potato Crisps Snacks Cont:  Ã‚ ² Matador Meat Snacks  Ã‚ ² Maui Style Potato Chips  Ã‚ ² Miss Vickys Potato Chips  Ã‚ ² Munchies Snack Mix  Ã‚ ² Munchos Potato Crisps  Ã‚ ² Natural Cheetos  Ã‚ ² Natural Lays  Ã‚ ² Natural Tostitos  Ã‚ ² Quaker Soy Crisps  Ã‚ ² Quaker Quakes  Ã‚ ² Rold Gold Pretzels  Ã‚ ² Ruffles Potato Chips  Ã‚ ² Sabritones Puffed Wheat Snacks  Ã‚ ² Santitas Tortilla Chips  Ã‚ ² Smartfood Popcorn  Ã‚ ² Spitz  Ã‚ ² Stacys  Ã‚ ² SunChips Multigrain Snacks  Ã‚ ² Tostitos Tortilla Chips  Ã‚ ² TrueNorth  Ã‚ ² Wavy Lays Potato Chips Soft Drinks:  Ã‚ ² Diet Pepsi  Ã‚ ² Diet Mountain Dew  Ã‚ ² Diet Sierra Mist  Ã‚ ² Mountain Dew  Ã‚ ² Mug Soft Drinks  Ã‚ ² Pepsi  Ã‚ ² Sierra Mist Sports Drinks:  Ã‚ ² Gatorade Prime 01  Ã‚ ² Gatorade Thirst Quencher Perform 02  Ã‚ ² G2 Perform 02  Ã‚ ² Gatorade Recover 03 Water:  Ã‚ ² Aquafina  Ã‚ ² Aquafina FlavorSplash  Ã‚ ² Aquafina Sparkling  Ã‚ ² Ethos Water  Ã‚ ² Propel Vitamin Enhanced Water Beverage  Ã‚ ² SoBe Lifewater Vitamin Enhanced Water Beverage EXHIBIT 2 PEPSICO TIMELINE 1965 PepsiCo, Inc. is founded (Pepsi-Cola and Frito-Lay) The new company reports sales of   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  $510 million and has 19,000 employees. 1966 Doritos brand tortilla chips are introduced. Pepsi enters Japan and Eastern Europe 1968 Growth through acquisition 1970 PepsiCo sales pass the $1 billion mark. The company has 36,000 employees.. Pepsi is the first company to respond to consumer preference with lightweight, recyclable, plastic bottles. 1974 PepsiCo sales pass the $2 billion mark. Pepsi-Cola becomes the first American consumer product to be produced, marketed and sold in the former Soviet Union. 1976 Pepsi-Cola becomes the single largest selling soft drink brand sold in U.S. supermarkets. 1977 Acquisition of Pizza Hut Passes $3 billion in sales. 1978 Acquisition of Taco Bell 1984 Diet Pepsi is reformulated with 100% NutraSweet. Pepsi-Cola makes advertising history as Michael Jackson and his brothers usher in a new generation of Pepsi-Cola advertising. 1985   PepsiCo is now the largest company in the beverage industry. The company has revenues of more than $7.5 billion, more than 137,000 employees. Pepsi-Cola products are available in nearly 150 countries and territories around the world. Snack food operations are in 10 international markets. 1986 Acquisition KFC Purchases 7UP International PepsiCo is listed on the Tokyo stock exchange. 1989 PepsiCo enters top 25 of Fortune 500 ranking with sales of $15.4 billion, it is number 23. The company has more than 300,000 employees. 1992- Pepsi-Cola begins distribution of Liptons line of ready-to-drink teas nationwide. 1994 PepsiCo and Starbucks form the North American Coffee Partnership to jointly develop ready-to-drink coffee beverages. PepsiCo sales reach $30.4 billion. There are 470,000 employees worldwide, making PepsiCo the third largest employer. 1997 Frito-Lay announces plans to buy the 104-year-old snack, Cracker Jack, a candy-coated mix of popcorn and peanuts from Borden Foods Corp. 1998 PepsiCo acquires Tropicana Products 2001 Acquisition of the Quaker Oats 2002 Frito-Lay announces it is eliminating trans fats from Doritos, Tostitos, and Cheetos. 2005   Quaker Introduces Weight Control Instant Oatmeal PepsiCo Donates $2 Million to Pakistan Earthquake Victims 2006 PepsiCos brand SoBe Launches New SoBe Life Water Cold Stone Creamery announces a multi-year agreement making Pepsi its exclusive beverage supplier Frito-Lay North America signed agreement with the Alliance for a Healthier Generation for a new policy for selling foods in schools Federal Trade Commission clears PepsiCo for Naked Juice Co. purchase 2008 PepsiCos diversification strategy built into three new divisions. PepsiCo agrees to buy Bulgarias Leading Nuts and Seeds Company EXHIBIT 3- SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS WEAKNESESS OPPORTUNITIES THREATS