Monday, September 30, 2019

Convenience Store and Freedom Writers Assignment Essay

The character I’ve chosen is Eva Benitez , is a 18 year teenage Mexican American girl short wave hair , tan skin wears red lipstick and hoop earrings has that tomboyish look . Life changes during her childhood. The first day of school for Eva she was waiting for her dad to take her to school , when it turn out to be the day she saw a friend die right in front of her eyes . Eva’s dad got arrested for the death of Roberto that was a crime he didn’t commit . A while after the situation with her dad she had an initiation to join a gang and be part of what they called â€Å"familia†. Then after that she fighted for her life , but in the inside she was scared and terrified of what could of happened. One night Eva and girl named Sindy go to a convenience store , when all of a student a drive by happens , it was Eva’s boyfriend Paco intending to kill a student named Grant rice . Accidently misses killing Sindy ’s boyfriend . Eva has to testify in court what happened since she was the only witness . During time passes and she goes to school and learns that there is still hope and decides what to do if right or wrong. Eva goes through a lot , trying to figure what to do ether protect her own skin or save a person that didn’t commit a crime . Eva is a girl who has taken a lot of abuse over the years , and has a rough life , she repeatedly goes through violence everyday to get what she needs , whether that is simply going to school or going into a convenient store. She sorts out her problems with anger and hate she’s a very strong , pretty , independent , scared , confused teenaged Mexican American girl.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Lord Of The Flies Alternative Ending Essay

Ralph was the first to spot Simon. He saw him stumbling down the mountain like a pathetic new born calf. His eyes were wide but heavy and tired at the same time. The camp stopped at a sudden and they watched Simon get closer and closer. Simon opened his mouth and began to talk. The blue-white scar was constant, the noise unendurable. Simon was crying out something about a dead man on a hill. Ralph strained his ears to try and listen but could not hear anything over the endless chants from the hunters. Then in such a quick second, the game had taken a terrible turn. Ralph caught a glimpse of Jack’s eyes. They were fixated on Simon and were full of anger and fury. Then in that split second, Ralph realised that he should do something quickly for the sake of Simon. Somehow, he knew that they were going to do something terrible. The chanting was getting stronger and the storm was becoming harsher. Ralph broke through the circling hunters and grabbed Simon’s arm. He pulled him through the mass of chanting savages and made him run a little way down the beach until they came to an opening to the forest. â€Å"Go Simon, run through the forest as fast and as far as you can.† Ralph looked into Simons’ eyes. He had never seen such clear and beautiful eyes before in his whole life. Now, they sparkled like he had never seen anything sparkle before in his life. He closed his eyes and he felt Simon’s arm leave the lose grip of his hand. He heard the scurrying of Simon’s little feet pad into the forest and into the darkness. Ralph’s knees gave way and he slumped on to the ground. Realising that he was awake and not unconscious, he became aware to the chanting that had became close. Too close. â€Å"Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood!† The chanting was continuous and the words spun through his head. The savages blurred in front of his eyes. Then there was silence. A voice spoke. Ralph recognised it as Jack. â€Å"You let the beast escape. You are an ally of the beast and I don’t want any beasts on my island. How do we know that you are not the beast? Don’t worry, we will find the other beast, he can’t get far. Look my hunters! We have found another beast!† Ralph tried to scream but the circle burst and started dancing and chanting again. This time Ralph could feel the spears scratching at his skin. Ralph didn’t move. He had given up. All he was waiting for was the final plunge of the spear to finish him off. Kill the beast! Spill his blood! Do him in!† An old woman began to pour a slender middle-aged man another cup of tea. â€Å"Oh, no thank you,† replied the man. â€Å"Now Mrs Doon, tell me a little about the patient. I’ve visited all the boys who returned from the island but it sounds as though yours has taken the experience the worst.† â€Å"He’s such a poor little boy. He’s been so ill since he’s arrived home. You would of thought that at least his father would come home to spend some time with him. He won’t let anyone show him the slightest bit of affection. It breaks my heart to see him like this. Anyway, what do I know? Here, let me show you to his room.† Mrs Doon guided the guest through a long winding passage to the top of the house. He thought that is was never going to end. Suddenly they heard a small boy’s voice crying out from the darkness. â€Å"Sounds like he’s had another nightmare again. They happen nearly every night now. I don’t know what to do for him anymore. Looks like you came at a good time doctor. We better go quickly now.† Mrs Doon carried on up the stairs but this time with a little more speed. The doctor could see how drained and tired she was. He walked anxiously behind her. â€Å"He refused to return to his own room and so we converted the attic into a room. He never comes out of it. All he does is sit up there all day. I’ve offered to decorate it for him but he insists that he likes it the way it is. He also always has to say that he is the leader and we must do what he wants. Now, I know that I am just someone employed by his father, but really! Well, what can you expect after being deserted on an island for three months, eh? Here we are. Now, I have to warn you doctor, he does tend to act a bit strange.† The old woman opened the door to the dark and miserable bedroom. Mrs Doon went straight for the curtains and snatched them back. The little body on the bed flinched at the immense light. â€Å"Now, Now, what is it? Another bad dream? Come on now, sit up a little. You have a visitor.† The little boys eyes were full of madness. Sweat dripped from his forehead. On his bed lay hundred of crumpled drawings. All the drawings were done with so much accuracy, but without colour, they lacked life. â€Å"It was chanting again. Over and over and-â€Å" â€Å"Hush. Now then. This is Doctor Wahlburg. He just wants to talk to you. He’s not going to harm you. He wants to help you.† â€Å"Hello,† began the doctor in a calming voice. â€Å"How are you feeling today then?† There was silence and no apparent movement. The child’s eyes made the doctor nervous and restless. â€Å"So, what are these drawings? Did you do these? They are splendid.† â€Å"Yes,† whispered the boy. His mouth hardly moving. â€Å"I did these, but this is my favourite one.† The boy reached over the bed and picked up a shoebox off the floor. He opened it with so much care and presented a perfectly folded piece of paper. He opened it with his eyes so wide. He showed the picture of a huge shell to the doctor. Like all the other pictures in the room, so much care had been taken over it. However, this picture had the quality of colour added to it. â€Å"Ralph my dear, it is freezing in here! Let me light you a fire-â€Å" â€Å"No!† Screamed Ralph. He sprang out of his bed while making horrific snarling noises. He began to circle the old woman. The doctor grabbed Ralph’s arm as an attempt to out him to bed again, but Ralph squirmed free of the grip and stood his ground in front of the terrified Mrs Doon. â€Å"What did I say? I said that I would get waxy if you tried to light that fire, didn’t I? I want to be alone with the doctor so let us be!† The old woman shuffled nervously out of the room. â€Å"See what I mean?† she cried just as she left the room. Ralph jumped happily back into bed, satisfied with his victory over an adult. It was obvious that he had found someone he liked in the form of the doctor. Still clutching onto his drawing, he sat at the top of the bed, quite innocently, and not making a sound. The doctor stirred on his spot very cautiously and slowly made his way to a chair at the end of the bed. He began to say something, but stopped himself and sat there in his own thoughts for a few minutes. Then he began. He opened up his notebook and took out a pencil. â€Å"Now Ralph, I want you to start from the beginning and don’t leave anything out. I want you to let out what has been eating away at you. It’s your turn now.†

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Applying Kants Ethical Theory to Nursing

Applying Kants Ethical Theory to Nursing Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Kà ¶nigsberg, which is today the city of Kaliningrad in the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast (Watkins, 2002). He was raised in a Pietist household that stressed intense religious devotion, personal humility, and a literal interpretation of the Bible (European Graduate School [EGS], 2010). Kant wrote numerous works in his lifetime but most of Kant’s work on ethics is presented in two works, The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals written in 1785, and the Critique of Practical Reason written in 1787 (McCormick, 2006). In order to understand Kant’s ethical views, his views on duty, reason, freedom, and good will should be explored. Freedom plays an important role in Kant’s ethics. A moral judgment presupposes freedom (McCormick, 2006). Also, freedom is a notion of reason, so without the assumption of freedom, reason cannot proceed. On the other hand, reason can only be satisfied with assumptions that practical observatio n cannot support. Reason seeks knowledge or understanding that it cannot comprehend (Williams, 2009). The question of moral action is an issue for rational beings. There is nothing in a rational beings character to waver. It will always match the dictate of reason. Humans are not wholly rational beings. We can either follow our natural instinct or non-rational impulse. Thus, rules of conduct are needed to guide human’s actions. Will is the ability to act according to the law. Outcomes of our actions are beyond our control. The only thing we can control is the will behind the action. Morality of an act must be assessed in terms of the impulse behind it. Kant says â€Å"good will† as the only thing unconditionally good because it cannot be used for ill purpose. Kant argued that moral requirements are based on a standard of rationality he dubbed the Categorical imperative. Categorical imperative is defined as the standard of rationality from which all moral requirements a re derived (Categorical imperative, 2007). It is an imperative because it is a command. It commands us to exercise our wills in a particular way. It is categorical because it is unconditionally and applies to everyone at all times (Hinman, 2006). CI requires an autonomous will. It is the presence of this self-governing reason in each person that Kant offered decisive grounds for viewing each person as possessed of equal worth and deserving of equal respect. There are three maxims or categorical imperatives that Kant’s theory are based on. The first categorical imperative is Universalisability which states that, â€Å"Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.† The second categorical imperative is the Law of Nature which states that, â€Å"Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end.† The third categorical imperative is known as the Kingdom of Ends states that, â€Å"every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends† (Kant, n.d.,  ¶ 43).

Friday, September 27, 2019

Jazz History-2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Jazz History-2 - Essay Example Finally, in the post-War era, jazz had become an art form and not simply an instrument of low/pop culture. However, bebop was too abstract and improvised for many not only in the 1950s but also today. Some forms of jazz still have popular appeal, despite the near 60 years that have passed since their recording. Cool jazz is one of few jazz movements that retain popular appeal even today; its enduring quality seems to be in the perfect mean it finds between the artfulness of bebop and the catchiness of pre-War Swing jazz. Cool jazz is said to have begun during the Second World War, during which predominantly white Californian jazz musicians migrated to New York City, where they integrated with bebop styles being played in the clubs such as Milton’s Playhouse. Many of these musicians were trained and educated in formal schools. The Californian styles tended to mediate the sharp edges of traditional bebop, and created a new fusion of approaches to arrangements in the jazz composition. Bringing back this emphasis on arrangements harkened back to the old days of Swing jazz (Giola 51), when big bands required knowledge of the song’s form across the different instrument sections. Although cool jazz did not reintroduce the concept of the big band to the mainstream, what it did do was reemphasize the need for consistent instrumentation across performances, and lessening the need for elaborate improvisations. But nailing down a definition of Cool jazz, and jazz in general, seems to be a futile practice. As Ted Giola writes, â€Å"Jazz writers learned long ago, for example, that it is almost impossible to come up with a good, succinct, widely accepted definition of jazz itself† (Giola 360). Coming up with definitions, that is, is a waste of time because art grows organically through changes in its shape and texture, independent of critics’ generalizations. Because it

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Russian Revolution and Europe in 1920-1930's Essay

Russian Revolution and Europe in 1920-1930's - Essay Example This leaded to the foundation of the new government for the development of the country. There were economic and social changes in the country due to this revolution. The social structure was changed in Russia. Even the British Ambassador Sir George Buchanan advised Tsar Nichols II to "break down the barrier that separates you from your people to regain their confidence" (Russian Revolution of 1917 page1). The impact of the revolution leaded to change in economical condition. The cities and the industries had grown after the revolution. The villagers also migrated to industrial works to strengthen their economic condition. The middle class also made a growth. The new class of capitalist was forming in the Russia. The social changes were also occurred. As the economic condition was strengthen due to urbanization the thinking was also changed in people about the society. Now the people were thinking for changing their social status by contributing to the government. Even they are looking forward for solving their problem like sanitary problem, low wages problem by meetings and dialogues. After the end of World War-I various treaties were signed by the European countries which destabilized their economic condition... There was a demand for paying the compensation. There were many restrictions imposed on the Germany. There were many other consequences of the World War-I., new countries like Austria, Hungary were born as a result of the war. Many parts of the Europe like Galicia; Trieste etc. were given allotted to countries like Poland, Italy etc. respectively. These transformations of region were due to many treaties like Treaty of Saint-German on 10 September, 1919 and Treaty of Trianon on June 4, 1920 (Wikipedia Page1). Many governments and empires had fallen due to this war like end of Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Svres was signed for this on August 10, 1920. Thus the political structure was de-stabilized by all these outcomes of war in Europe. The major blow was to the governments of Germany, Turkey kingdom etc. The economic status of the loser countries in the Europe was damaged. The structural blow was also there as the many cities were extinguished as a result of the war. Thus the people also failed in believing their governments. Thus the political situation in many countries was changed due to the war and treaties signed after the war in compromise by the loser countries. The Adolf Hitler was the chancellor of Germany from1933. He remained the leader of Germany up to his death from 1933. He was the leader of his Nationalist Socialist German Party. He was the leader in Germany who asked the people to enter in World War. He founded the Nazism. Mussolini was the

Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 5

Leadership - Essay Example A person’s beliefs, values, character, and ethics play a big role in determining what kind of a leader they will be. Today, we experience both good and bad leadership in different situations. Bad leadership is harmful to the society in many ways, therefore, should be avoided. Good leadership is what the society should adopt, as this is beneficial in many ways. This essay will therefore, address the concept of good leadership, and some of the steps one must follow to ensure good leadership. Knowledge and skills contribute to the leadership process. However, personal attributes such as values, and character, are the ones that make a leader to stand out among all the others. For instance, in order for one to practise good leadership, they must be impartial. This enhances trust and credibility of the leader by the people. These are aspects that are earned by the leader, and do not merely come with the position. However, if a leader acts ethically and professionally, they will be a ble to win trust of the people. Impartiality mainly refers to the treatment of everyone in an equal manner, devoid of favouritism. This improves relationships between the leader and the people, since the people will be sure that their leader does not have hidden outcomes in their position, neither will they question motivation. In this case, a leader must therefore, apply equal standards to all people and perform unbiased evaluation. Good leadership requires strong confidence. A good leader must therefore, be confident in themselves. Confidence includes a leader having an honest understanding of who they are, their skills and knowledge, as well as their capabilities. This is the first step of confidence on the leader’s side. Similarly, the people must have strong confidence in their leader, as this will prove that the leader is effective. The people judge and determine the effectiveness of their leaders. Therefore, if people do not trust their leader or lack confidence in the m, this means the leader is poor. Therefore, a good leader must work toward building their confidence, as well as the confidence of the people they lead. This is because; one must prove to people that they are capable of good leadership. For good leadership, a person must be capable of learning from their mistakes. Normally, it is always hard for people to accept their mistakes and take lessons from them. However, as a leader, one must be ready to accept their mistakes and learn lessons from them. This is an important step in learning, growing, and improving in the leadership position. A good leader must therefore, not blame their mistakes on the people, but admit them, as this is known to accelerate immense progress. If a leader made a few failures in the past, this should not deter them from moving on. They must have the confidence and courage of learning from their failures, and using the failures to produce success. Mistakes and failures are crucial in leadership, as they offer the leader more experience in specific situations. It becomes probable that after making a certain mistake, or failing terribly in a specific situation, a leader might not repeat the same mistakes in the future, and they will not fail if the same situation presents itself in future. Therefore, accepting past mistakes and learning from them, makes a good leader. Good leadership involves putting the needs of others first. This is the virtue of selflessness. True leadership requir

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Understand business objectives from an ethical perspective Essay

Understand business objectives from an ethical perspective - Essay Example business objectives are important things that owners can share with their company staff, they are statements that comprise of specific, realistic and measurable goals, which have certain periods that any business has to strive to stick to. In order to achieve its objectives rightly, there are important measures a business has to refer to in its quest to achieve set objectives, these are the business ethics. Business ethics refers to a certain kind of applied or professional ethics, whose role in business is to make an examination of the manner in which moral values are followed in the business environment (Audi 2009 67). It is important that a business, having set its objectives, devise ethical values to govern the manner in which it conducts its internal and external activities in achieving its set objectives. Business ethics defines the manner in which a business treats its staff, manages their affairs and responds to arising issues satisfactorily. At the same time, business ethics plays an important role in the way a business relates with its external environment, it ensures that competition is done in the best interest of all players in the industry. If a business fails to observe business ethics, then it is bound to affect its internal and external business operations including a possible confrontation with its stakeholders. Pfizer being a global company; it has a global vision of researching, manufacturing and delivering medicines for all people around the world. In this understanding, the company has created a statement upon which it operates, that is, â€Å"good health is vital† to all people. It has a major corporate objective of producing medicines that can prevent several diseases, currently; the company is working extensively to produce medicines that can cure and prevent some of the world’s most terminal diseases like Alzheimer’s and cancer among others. Following the need to fulfill a wide range of health needs for people across the world,

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

People and Organisational Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

People and Organisational Management - Essay Example It is important to be able to have a clear idea of yourself in developing your own PDF. It is no surprise then that knowing oneself is the primary requirement when preparing a PDF. This can be done by getting data that pertains to oneself. Being able to do this may take a lifetime since a person’s growth naturally adds up to a person’s trove of experiences. This is very important since a self-motivated individual must seek a challenging environment. Likewise, improvement and personal innovation has really become key traits nowadays for an individual to be able to cope with the fast changing environment at work. Likewise, it is also key to exude a certain degree of professionalism at all times. In crafting a resume’, it is important to remember that the one making his or her resume knows the product more than the anybody because he or she is selling himself/herself (the MIT Career Development Centre). Self AssessmentIt is important to be able to have a clear idea of yourself in developing your own PDF. It is no wonder that this is the initial step towards a successful plan for self-development. Hence, after a quick review, I have come to realize certain key points about myself such as my strong work ethic and my being dependable and resposible. I believe that this is further strengthened by my postive attitude as well as the character that i am particularly proud of. The cut throat competition can really drain a person physically and mentally.... This will then lead to professional development not to mention the numerous contacts from networks. Moving forward and achieving the milestones that I will set in my PDP can help me maximize the opportunities that further studies and maybe even trainings can provide me. In addition, my further studieas and trainings can be reagrded as a reward in itself In any case, the opportunity for further learneing can boost my PDP as I regard my performance as reward (McClelland, 1961). 10 Threats 10 Despite the positive impact of such an opportunity, it is undeniable that these do not come cheap. Hence, the cost can greatly undermine my efforts making failure bith painful and costly. However, this is where my docility will be tested as I set out in my PDP. It is therefore important to include in the plan certain reminders of how significant the task that I will be undertaking really is. In that way, I can stay motivated to be able to prod on when the going gets tough (Grant 2008b). 10 Conclusi on 10 My main target for now is to earn my master’s degree which will open up a host of possibilities. Despite the threat of costs, it is imperative that I am able to push forward with this plan even if the monetary rewards do not come right away. To hurdle this I turn to Esenberger’s theory (1992) of learned industriousness wherein putting in certain incentives throughout my PDP can motivate me further to truly imporve myself. Most important of these will be the fact that the opportunity for further learneing can boost my PDP and that my performance in that endeavor is a reward in itself (McClelland 1961). It is then easy to have certain markers and milestones as every semester that I hurdle is a milestone in itself. Also, since plans are not static, it is

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Pueblo woman by Roxanne Swentzell Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Pueblo woman by Roxanne Swentzell - Essay Example The sunglasses show how the artist is blending modernism in her art work. a) Conform to the theoretical model. The artwork that fails to conform to the theoretical models fails to be recognized significantly therefore not recognized equally. The artwork must conform to the standards and this has made many artworks not to be recognized. There is a medium that the artist has used. She has endeavored to have a message in her sculpt. The artistic work shows the popular culture within the popular culture. b) Break from tradition. Masterpieces that break from the tradition of the Native American art make the work and the artist to remain anonymous. Roxanne has not observed the tradition as she seeks to pursue post modernism. This is evidenced in the carvings where she shows the how the modern woman is supposed to put on. The modern culture is shown by the use of the modern glasses and the striped swimsuit. The artist is not geared to reveal history but shows the popular culture within the Pueblo woman. c) Political boundaries. The sculptor has avoided being influenced by politics. She has endeavored in representing lifestyle and cultures, especially in the women as she exhibits modernity. There is no political representation in the sculpt but she chooses to address the conflicting cultural frameworks and the expectation of the modern woman. The artist chose to use clay as a medium to do her sculpt. It has a smooth texture and the color is blended well to show essentialism and reality of the modern lady.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Marketing Strategy and Economic Changes Essay Example for Free

Marketing Strategy and Economic Changes Essay Marketing Strategy and Economic Changes Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Many organizations and business entities have developed and expanded their operations across the world as a result of the great developments which have been experienced in various economies across the world. One of the major issues that have contributed to the growth of organization is their strategies in marketing their products and services so that the consumers are aware of what they are offering. Marketing strategies when implemented properly often bring good returns to a company in terms of increased market share, increased sales as well as increase in the profitability(Larson, 2011).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Failure of a company to have effective marketing strategy can result in failure and collapse of the business since the company is not able to promote its products and influence the purchasing behaviour of the consumers (Parker, 2011). It is important that an organization should formulate a marketing strategy that will enable it realize its objectives and goals in the short and long run. However, there are changes in the economy which may affect the marketing strategies which an organization applies for its products so that it can be able to stay in the market. Economic issues such recession and depression in the economy may force a company or an organization to change the strategies and adopt new ones that will not affect the company negatively. Nike Inc is a multinational organization that deals in sportswear in terms of clothes as well as shoes for all groups of people(Nike: The Future Of Marketing, 2012). Nike Inc   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Nike Inc is a worldwide known brand of sportswear designer, manufacturer as well as distributor and seller across the world. The company is known to produce one of the top quality brands of products that are used across different sports in the world. The company has been in the forefront in ensuring that its marketing strategies are effective and capture the market as well as help it stay on top of the competition(Zakrevskaya, Mastracci, 2013). The marketing strategies which the company has been using include brand promotion and commercials with the endorsement of famous celebrities in the sports field. The company uses successful sports professionals, college teams as well as celebrities who they sponsor using their products(Nike: The Future Of Marketing, 2012).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When the successful sports professional such as Michael Jordan are seen by consumers to use the products of the company, there are high chances that the consumers will be influenced to purchase the products since someone that is successful has recommended them and also makes use of them(Larson, 2011). This marketing strategy of using celebrities and successful sports persons builds the notion in consumers that they too can have the same experience as the sports persons that use the same products and also show their association with the persons of their choice. The company has also made use of marketing segmentation as part of its marketing strategy. Nike Inc has majority of the sportsmen as its consumers (Nike: The Future Of Marketing, 2012).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, changes in the global economy can have negative impacts and influence the marketing strategies of the company. As mentioned earlier, economic factors such as the occurrence of recession, as well as depression are some of the economic factors which can influence and impact the marketing strategies of the company(DATAMONITOR: NIKE, Inc., 2012). The impacts of the economic changes can be analysed in terms of the effect on the competitive advantage of the company, targeting, market segmentation as well as positioning in addition to branding of products. Impacts of Economic Changes Competitive Advantage   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Economic recession and depression are the major economic changes that can greatly affect the marketing strategies that Nike Inc applies. During the economic recession and depression, it means that there is less supply of cash and that people do not have enough to sustain their normal purchasingbehaviour(Zakrevskaya, Mastracci, 2013). The products that Nike Inc offers to the consumers, especially the sportsmen are often of high price. Recession and depression will mean that the company will have to look for new marketing strategies which can still help sustain its profitability. Sponsoring of the sportsmen is the primary marketing strategy which the company has used for many years and has been seen to be effective (OnurTaÅŸ, CunedioÄŸlu, 2014).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Therefore, during recession and depression, Nike Inc will be forced to forgo some of the sponsorships since it will not be able to sustain the sponsorships which are often free to the athletes in return for the athletes wearing the brands of the company(DATAMONITOR: NIKE, Inc., 2012). The company would want to reduce its costs in sponsoring during the recessions and depression since many people at this time do not have enough funds to spare which they can spend on high-end products such as those of Nike. Companies that produce substitute products which are cheaper will have an added advantage compared to Nike (Groucutt, Forsyth, Leadley, 2004). Consumers would want to purchase less of the high-end products hence accusing Nike Inc to lose its competitive advantage to the competitors that offer cheaper products. Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Nike Inc is a well-known brand and often uses marketing segmentation as a way of promoting is products. The market segment that the company has engaged in is the sportsmen segment in the market (DATAMONITOR: NIKE, Inc., 2012). The primary target has been athletes and people that engage in sporting activities across the world from different age groups. This means that the company relies heavily on sports to promote and sell its products. Therefore, when there is economic recession and depression, the company may want to adapt a new market segment, that of those that are not involved in sports(OnurTaÅŸ, CunedioÄŸlu, 2014). However, the marketing segmentation and targeting of the non-sporting groups will mean that the company has to adjust the pricing of its products.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Furthermore, the targeting strategy of the company will be affected negatively since it will need to change from just sponsorship of the sportsmen but also to check on diversity of its products. Under positioning in the market, Nike Inc has been able to position itself strategically across the globe in many countries(Zakrevskaya, Mastracci, 2013). The company operates in different countries hence has a global presence which is good for the company. The economic recession and depression will not have a major impact on the positioning of the company as it already has a global presence. However, it may have to look at other markets that are developing where the market may not be greatly affected by the changes in the global economy(MacEwan, Miller, 2011). Branding   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The other aspect of marketing strategy that may be affected by the negative economic changes in the global economy is branding. Nike Inc has been observed to have a strong brand that commands a huge market share as compared to other competitors(Lee, Ha, 2012). The branding of the company’s product will not be affected since the company has a fully established brand that is well known and has a great market share in sports. Impact on Consumer Behaviour   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Changes in the global economy, especially issues such as recession and depression in the economy will have an impact on the consumer behaviour and how they make their purchasing decisions; especially regarding the products of Nike Inc(MacEwan, Miller, 2011). Consumers depend on their income to purchase products and when the global economy faces issue such as recession and depression, their income is likely to be affected. Therefore, the consumers in this case will shy away from high-end products since they are expensive.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to the law of demand, when the price of an item is high, there are chances that the demand may decline. Income is a determinant factor hence the purchasing behaviour of the consumers will change with consumers seeking for more urgent needs such as food and clothing and other needs instead of spending their money on sportswear (Zakrevskaya, Mastracci, 2013). Therefore, Nike will be forced to seek alternative marketing strategy which will still appeal to the consumers such as offering of discounts and providing affordable products. Consumers during recession and depression will often seek for substitute products that can still function the same way as the primary product hence they will opt to purchase other types of clothing that can still perform the functions of Nike products. Growth Opportunities   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The global economy is constantly experiencing growth which continues to create opportunities for many companies in the world, Nike Inc included, to grow and expand on their business. Nike Inc has potential for growth in various areas based on the technological developments which have continued to increase innovation and creativity (MacEwan, Miller, 2011). Furthermore, the many policies in various countries on business have been changed to open up borders for international trade in various countries across the world which means an increase in the potential market for the products of the company. The growth opportunities that the company has include the growing global market for footwear as well as the growing opportunity in online retail. Global footwear market   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Over the recent years, there has been tremendous growth that has been experienced in the global market on footwear which provides Nike with an excellent opportunity to grow its business (NIKE, Inc. SWOT Analysis, 2014). The company has a strong brand portfolio as well as strong marketing strategies which if properly managed will enhance the business. As mentioned, there has been a lot of reduction in trade barriers in many countries across the world through trade treaties which have opened up new markets especially bin developing countries.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The global market for footwear has grown over the years and in the year 2012; the revenue generated amounted to about $256.6 billion. The European markets as well as the Asian markets have also experienced growth over the years which provide a great opportunity for the growth of the company (Lee, Ha, 2012). The global footwear market is poised to grow a lot and hence Nike should take up the opportunity since there is a growing demand among consumers for footwear products that are comfortable. Online Retail   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The other growth opportunity that Nike Inc has is online retailing. Over the years, there has been a growing trend among consumers to make purchases online as a result of the technological as well as the development of the internet(NIKE, Inc. SWOT Analysis, 2014). Consumers over the recent past have been seen to prefer online purchasing which they consider to be affordable, efficient as well as convenient. Therefore, Nike Inc, through its website and creation of an online store for its products, can growth in the future (Larson, 2011). References DATAMONITOR: NIKE, Inc. (2012). NIKE, Inc. SWOT Analysis, 1-10. Groucutt, J., Forsyth, P., Leadley, P. (2004).Marketing: Essential principles, new realities. London [u.a.: Kogan Page. Larson, D. (2011). Global Brand Management Nikes Global Brand.ISM Journal OfInternational Business, 1(3), 1-14. Lee, K., Ha, I. â€Å".(2012). Exploring the Impacts of Key Economic Indicators and Economic Recessions in the Restaurant Industry.Journal Of Hospitality Marketing Management, 21(3), 330-343 MacEwan, A., Miller, J. A. (2011).Economic collapse, economic change: Getting to the roots of the crisis. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe. NIKE, Inc. SWOT Analysis. (2014). NIKE, Inc. SWOT Analysis, 1-8. Nike: The Future Of Marketing. (2012). Marketing (00253650), 28. OnurTaÅŸ, B. K., CunedioÄŸlu, H. E. (2014). HOW CAN RECESSIONS BE BROUGHT TO AN END? EFFECTS OF MACROECONOMIC POLICY ACTIONS ON DURATIONS OF RECESSIONS.Journal Of Applied Economics, 17(1), 179-198. Parker, J. A. (2011).On Measuring the Effects of Fiscal Policy in Recessions.Journal OfEconomic Literature, 49(3), 703-718. Zakrevskaya, O., Mastracci, S. (2013). Differential Effects of the Great Recession by Household Type.Challenge (05775132), 56(6), 87-114. Source document

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Spanish Waste Water Environmental Sciences Essay

The Spanish Waste Water Environmental Sciences Essay Aznalcollar, a town in the region of Andalusia, is located in the south west of Spain. The region of Andalusia is the second largest region of Spain, and it is the countrys highest populated region. Andalusia is known to be an economically poor region with the majority of growth in its industry and service sectors. The region can be divided into two major sub regions; in the north, the Sierra Morena Mountains can be found and below this in the south is the valley of the Guadalquivir. This valley is home to the regions most fertile land, which is found along the banks of the river Guadalquivir and its tributaries. One of these tributaries is the river Guadiamar which flows through the town of Aznalcollar. The flow of the Guadiamar River is very seasonal; however it still sustains agricultural activity throughout the area. 45 percent of the Andalusia region is responsible for agriculture. Agriculture is mainly located around the fertile banks of the regions Rivers such as the river Guadiamar. The main agriculture in this area is made up dry land farming of cereals such as barley and oats. Other cereals grown in the area use irrigation. These cereals include maize, cotton, olives and rice. Only 17 percent of Spains cultivated land is irrigated, proving that this region is of great importance to Spains primary sector. Taking the type of crop into account, this land could also allow for the harvest of two successive crops in the same year proving its benefits to the area. Other primary sectors in the region include: fishing and mining which are all located around the Guadiamar River. The Guadiamar River is a valuable source to the population of Aznalcollar, providing a source of food, materials and employment. Fish is the main source of protein in the Spanish diet and it is commonly found in traditional Spanish dishes. Fishing not only provides a source of food to the area but also employment due to its demands. Mining still holds a great level of importance to the Andalusia region. The region is responsible for producing half of Spains mining product by value. The product comes from different provinces of the region including Seville, where various metals are extracted from the mine at Aznalcollar. The Los Frailes mine at Aznalcollar produces around 125000 tons of zinc and 2.9 million ounces of led per year. This mine offers a great source of employment and income to the area from raw materials which are exported. Tourism is also a major beneficial source to the tertiary sector of the region. The coast of Andalusia offers a very obvious source of tourism however The Donana National Park located along the bank of the Guadiamar River, is thought to be a Mecca for bird watchers. The national Park covers 543km ²(337.41  mi ²) of which 135  km ² (83.89  mi ²) is a protected area. It is made up of marsh, shallow streams and sand dunes. In 1963 the park was established as a nature reserve when the World Wildlife Fund joined with the Spanish government and purchased a section of marshes to protect it. Donana National Park is one of Europe most important wetland reserves and a major site for migrating birds. The park itself is internationally recognized for its great ecological wealth and has become a key center in the world of tourism. It has become very popular due to its enormous variety of bird species, permanent residents, winter visitors from north and central Europe or summer visit ors from Africa, such as its numerous types of geese and colorful colonies of flamingo. The park is also home to one of the worlds largest colonies of Spanish imperial eagles. As a whole, the park offers three distinct types of ecosystems: the marismas, the Mediterranean scrublands and the coastal mobile dunes with their beaches. The park attracts a vast amount of tourists annually, which in turn benefit the economy of the area. The park is also used by pilgrims taking part in the Romeria de El Rocio. This event alone can attract up to one million pilgrims each year. It is visible from the information above that the area surrounding the Guadiamar River is extremely dependent on its sourrouding natural sources. The town of Aznalcollar is reliant on the following; agriculture, fishing, mining and tourism. However in April 1998 when the dam of the mining residual tank of a pyrite mine in the locality ruptured, releasing sludge and contaminated waste water. The wastewater entered the Agrio River and the Guadiamar River. Both these rivers had low water levels due to a spring drought. In turn the rivers flooded nearby cultivated fields and threatened to flood the Donana National Park further downstream. This had an enormous affects on the population of Aznalcollar. Initially families living near the river were physically threatened. They had to flee their homes immediately, not only due to rising flood levels, but the fact that the water had been polluted with toxic heavy metals. These families lost vast amounts of their belongings in the flood and the polluted water threatened their health. Fortunately there were no initial fatalities, just a small number of people injured. However it was not recorded but these families were at the greatest risk of contacting terminal disease from the toxic water. PUT IN WHAT AOIFE SAID http://fuentesdeciencia.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/hungria-aznalcollar.jpg?w=480h=268 Initial affects to the area surrounding the Guadiamar River. The cultivated lands along the banks of the River Guadiamar were also destroyed. As the toxic waste water entered the river the level rose and flooded the cultivated land along the river banks. Not only were the crops damaged by the polluted water but by the residual mud. Any of the crops that had little water damage still could not be harvest due to fears of toxic contamination, so all harvest had to be destroyed. This occurrence lead to a great economic loss, believed to estimate at $10million. Not only is this a very large sum of money for a poor region, but it was spread mainly among 2,000 small farmers who had a great dependence on agriculture. This in turn also increased the price of rice, cotton and olives (main crops grown) in the area as they had to be bought and transported from other areas. However not only were harvest effected in 1998, due to the pollution of soils, crops could not be grown for a least another five years, until analysis had deemed the land safe for culti vation. This caused great loss for the farming community in the area as they had to abandon farming for this period and find another source of employment. Pasture farmers were also affected in a similar way. When the area flooded rapidly farmers had to abandon their farms, without any time to bring their animals to higher ground. These animals either drowned from high flood levels or were poisoned from drinking the contaminated water. When farmers could return to the area, their herds had been killed and no vegetation would grow for years after due to level of pollution in the soil. These farmers also had to seek different forms of employment, which deemed very difficult in this poor region. images.jpg Fishing in the area was a great source of income for the community as there was a great demand. However once the contaminated wastewater entered the river all fish stocks were killed by the toxins. Fears also remained within the community years after the incident of how clean the river really was and was it safe to consume fish from the river. Mining was another great source of income for Aznalcollar, as a poor region it depended greatly on its natural resources. However when the incident occurred at the Los Frailes Mine, the mine was closed down instantly due to further risk of contamination to the area. This impacted the area greatly as the mine employed 500 people and an estimated 1800 people indirectly. The employment of the area had a great dependency on the mine. Once the mine closed there were more that 2000 people in the area left unemployed. Also the material extracted from the mine when sold brought a source of income to the area, which was lost due to the closure of the mine. As visible from above the Donana National Park is Aznalcollar main source of tourism and bring in a great source income to the area. The park was not directly affected by the incident however it was under threat from the toxic flood water entering the site. The sand and dirt dikes which were constructed to control the flow of the contaminated water prevented the park from begin affected. However the surrounding areas were covered in a thick toxic sludge. This area was then covered with dead fish, frogs, crabs etc which had been killed by the contaminated water in the river and were then washed up in this area of sludge. Although the park was not directly affected, the birds in the park were attracted to these poisoned animals on the sludge. When the bird consumed these poisons creatures they were poisoned themselves. The number of birds in the park decreased dramatically. Also these birds spread disease from these dead creatures to other creatures inside the park, creating a continuo ue negative affect within the park. The national parks main water source was cut off as it was sourced from the contaminated river Guadiamar. This also created difficulty in the running to the park as a new water supply had to be sourced immediately. The park was closed for a short occasion; so that staff could help assist in the cleanup operation outside the park and so that a new water supply could be sourced. When the park did reopen there was a report in a drop of numbers of tourist visiting the park. The local association for tourism ACETA reported that in 1998 about 40 percent of reservations for tourist visits were cancelled, within the national park which calculated to a loss of approximately à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬480,000. This was possibly due to health fears in the areas. One of the most prominent human impacts from the disaster was its affect on human health. Short term health problems resulted in a small number of minor casualties recorded. However the long term health effects were most feared. The toxins found in the water consisted of heavy metals such as lead, zinc, arsenic, cyanide and other heavy metals from the mines reservoir. The fear was that these toxic metals could be consumed by humans through drinking water. Even after the area was cleaned, trace elements of these metals could still remain in water pipes etc. Also the soil which may also contain trace elements of these toxins could transfer the toxins from the soil into crops and contaminate the food chain. The fear behind long term human health effects is the high risks of cancer and neurological disease which can be caused by these toxins. The final human impact caused by the catastrophe at Aznalcollar was the large scale cost involved. It is estimated that over all cost for the Boliden company came to à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 89 million, these were figures given out by the Boliden. This figure included the cost of cleaning up the northern sector of the Guadiamar à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬27 million, the acquisition of the harvest of 1998 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 11 million, the operations of decommissioning of the tailings lagoon à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 41 million and the loss due to the stop of the mining activity in 1998. The regional government of Andalusia provided à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 145 million for the disaster remediation. This budget was mainly used for cleaning up operations, the acquisition of the polluted land à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 48 million and restoration à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 90 million. The Ministry for Environment provided a budget of à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 136.7 million. à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 13 million was used in the removal of the tailings; à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 15 million was used for the treatment of toxic water accumulation in the marshlands. The Ministry for Environment has also approved to provide à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 93.7 million for a hydric regeneration plan for Donana National Park and the Guadiamar riverbed. The overall cost of the whole devastation amounted to à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 377.7 million, which impacted humans as this was mainly funded by tax payers money. http://awsassets.wwf.es/downloads/mining_in_donana_english.pdf http://www.fhs.se/Documents/Externwebben/forskning/centrumbildningar/Crismart/Forskning/Fallbanken/BOLIDEN_.PDF http://countrystudies.us/spain/57.htm Aznalcollars spilling from IES Gustavo Adolfo Bà ©cquer Lessons Learned Although the disaster resulted in great negative affects for the region, positivity can be taken from the tragedy by learning from mistakes and putting systems in place to prevent a toxic spill of such size from occurring again. There were four main lessons learned: Need to know the possible environmental threats from mining lagoons in further detail and the post implementation to prevent these actions. Nessesity to strengthen the mine legistration due to the inappropriate environmental management of Aznalcollar mine before and after the incident. The good practices in cleaning up activities techniques of the sludge have reduced the pollution levels of the affected area. Oppurtunity to create new restoration projects and to implement the Ramsar Convention recommendations. Need to know the possible environmental threats from mining lagoons in further detail and the post implementation to prevent these actions. The good practices in cleaning up activities techniques of the sludge have reduced the pollution levels of the affected area. The cleanup activities of the emergency were rapid and efficient since the area was flooded by contaminated wastewater. On the 25th of April 1998 in Aznalcollar, Spain, the Los Frailes tailings dam, ruptured. It contained tailings from the mining of arsenic, silver, cadmium, copper, zinc and lead. The Los Frailes mine had a mining rate of approximately 4 million tones per year. The ruptured dam released about 5-7 million cubic meters of toxic tailings sludge and contaminated wastewater into Agrio River, which is a tributary to Guadiamar River. Cause of the Los Frailes tailings dam failure: The actual cause of the Los Frailes tailings dam failure is still to this day exactly 100% clear as the final report has yet to be published and released. The authorities blamed the Swedish-Canadian operator of the mine, Boliden Ltd, and Boliden Ltd claimed instantaneously after this terrible incident occurred that they were not at fault. Immediately after the accident happened it was suspected that a foundation failure occurred in the separation dam thats located between two parts of the impoundments, e.g.: the soil underneath the base of the Los Frailes dam lost its mechanical strength. The separation dam is positioned among the basins, which are filled with tailings from pyroclastic rock and pyritic rock and the foundation failure of this lead to the breaking of the main dam. The Swedish-Canadian operator of the mine, Boliden Ltd, has assured the authorities and the people of Aznalcollar that there was no possible way of foreseeing the foundation failure. There have been many different reports and opinions given as to why the dam failure occurred. The company Boliden Ltd stated at the start, that the cause of the dam rupturing was a landslide, which resulted in the movement of a part of the wall. However, the authorities stated that the damn was not of adequate construction and also that any signs of a probable break were ignored by the company in charge. Three independent investigations were carried out into the cause of the dam failure. One investigation was commissioned by Boliden Ltd and carried out by EPTISA, another was commissioned by the regional authorities and carried out by CEDEX and the 3rd investigation was commissioned by the judge who was in charge of leading the legal proceedings of the accident and was carried out by the University of Bar celona. From the findings of the three investigations it was agreed that the cause of the dam failure was from the formation of sliding surfaces in the marl beneath the foundation. The foundation failure occurred because of the chemical attack of the impounded acidic pyritic sludge on the marl. Marl contains calcium carbonate and clay. The attack of acid on the marl decomposed the calcium carbonate present, which resulted in the deterioration of the mechanical stability of the soil. Fig 1: The breaking of the dam: A large part of soil, which was located underneath the dam, moved towards Rà ­o Agrio (approx. 1 metre). The front part of the moving soil was approx. 20 metres wide and positioned where the junction of the two impoundments. This caused the dam to crack and break suddenly causing the wall to collapse move forward along the separation dam, between the two impoundments. Approximately 5 million cubic metres of toxic tailings sludge and contaminated wastewater seeped through the opening. The bed of Rà ­o Agrio increased by roughly 3 metres and changed its course. Fig 2: Detailed diagram showing before the displacement had occurred and after the displacement had occurred. The Los Frailes dam is approximately 25 meters in height and lies on 4 meters of alluvium, which is situated under 70 meters of blue marl. By the overstressing of the blue marl, it resulted in the dam, alluvium and the marl to slide. This sliding caused the pyrite tailings to liquefy, which then resulted in increasing the loading on the dam while the foundation resistance was decreased. These various processes were the result of the 60 meters of horizontal displacement of the Los Frailes dam. Various other factors were ruled out as being contributing factors to the failure of the dam, e.g.: blasting, earthquakes etc. Fig 3: Actual photograph of the Los Frailes tailings dam failure showing a total of approximately 60 meters of displacement. In the beginning of November 1998, Boliden sent a report to the judge who was in charge of the case. In the report it stated that a new displacement (3 millimetres) of the dam had taken place since the spill. The Government confronted the public, as there was an increased risk of a new spill. Mid-November 1998, the Environmental Protection Department warned that there was still a higher amount of tailings than what was lost when the dam ruptured in April, and if it rains and the dam fills with the rainwater then it would apply even more pressure to the walls of the dam. In February 1999, Boliden Ltd finally admitted for the first time that the tailings dam was not properly designed. They directed the blame entirely on the contractor (Dragados y Construcciones) and the two engineering firms used by them. Interventions: Emergency measures put in place in order to minimize the social, economic and environmental impact of the Aznalcollar spill. An emergency operation had to be put in place in order to minimize the damaged caused by the spill. The Spanish Authorities, the Regional Government of Andalusia and also Boliden Ltd (Apirsa) were involved in the clean up. On the 1st of May 1998, the different administrations created a Mixed Commission of Coordination. The 1st task that was carried out was the immediate removal of the tailings, which were found at the old part of the mine. Removing the tailings was spread out over two operations, in 1998 and 1999. Approximately 99% of the tailings were recovered as a result. According to the Regional Government of Andalusia, the collection of nearly all the tailings means that around 7000 million litres of soil and tailings have been recovered. In 1999, Boliden Ltd was granted the licensing of stabilization works for the dam as it was found that there was a significant movement after the initial spill (17 centimeters) and was a cause for major concern. Another campaign was then undertaken by the Mixed Commission of Coordination, which involved treating the soil. The soil was treated using a chemical procedure, which would result in immobilizing the various heavy metals that remained in the soil. The construction of the Entremuros dike caused the retention of 2 billion litres of acid water. In order to allow the Guadalquivir River Basin Authority to purify the dammed waters, a water treatment plant was constructed beside the Entremuros dike. After the purification process, it would then discharge the purified water to the estuary of Guadalquivir. Another drastic measure was put in place in order to control the environmental quality in the surface waters, the air, the subterranean waters, the estuary, and also a sanitary control program of the people living in the surrounding area who were affected by the Aznalcollar spill. The entire process was established in a series of published laws, decrees and also orders between May 5th 1998 and 1999. Also in May 1998, the Council of Ministers of the Regional Government of Andalusia had approved the various actions that were necessary for carrying out a project of regeneration and adaption for public use. This was called the Guadiamar Green Corridor. The Guadiamar Green Corridor project was developed in 1999. The reason it was developed was to restore the Guadiamar basin and its surrounding ecosystems. The plan of action of the project was described in the Guadiamar Green Corridor Strategy, which was supported by the International Seminary on Ecological Corridors in March 1999. The Guadiamar Green Corridor project is also reveled in the results of an investigation program, which is known as PICOVER. PICOVER was developed between the years of 1998 and 2002. The Regional Government of Andalusia published the conclusions found as a result of this program. The estimated total amount of the PICOVER was à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ 5.8 million. It was divided down into 2 different stages. The 1st stage was developed between 1998 and 2001. The effects of the Aznalcollar spill were studied (on organisms and ecosystems) and the necessary guidelines for the restoration were set out. The 2nd stage was developed between the years of 2002 and 2003. The ob jective of the 2nd stage was to control the factors that were most effected by the spill, which were soil and water. Attention was also given to the species that were considered to be the most important bio indicators e.g. plants, fish, etc. The Green Corridors objectives and the plan of action: To decontaminate the water, soil and also organisms of the riverbed. Also the decontamination of the flooded plains and the marsh that was damaged by the acid water and tailings. Water: The Green Corridor has a technical office, which had set up stations. These stations were put in place to control the surface water (17 stations). From all 17 stations, only one of them has had an increased value (El Guijo). A study that was carried out by the Guadalquivir River Basin Authority back in 2003 concluded that the El Guijo station, which was situated in the Guadiamar River, had continued to present an increased level of zinc, cadmium and copper metals. The El Guijo station, out of the 17 stations, is one of the closest to the Los Frailes mine. It is 2.5 km beneath water. All of the remaining 16 stations are within the legal limits and fit for human consumption. The Guadalquivir estuary was tested after the spill and it showed an increase in the level of contamination. This problem solved itself after a few short months as the contamination level returned to what it was before the spill occurred. Soil: Since the Aznalcollar spill, the process of decontaminating the soil had been successfully carried out for the most part. The monitoring of the soil to ensure the contamination level remains low has continually been followed up, especially focusing on the main affected area (the Aznalcollar mine and the bridge of Doblas). The reason this area was the main affected area was because of its closeness to the disastrous lagoon. This resulted in high levels of zinc, arsenic and lead contamination. Since 2002, the majority of soil areas that were affected were cleaned. The cleaning process eliminated central points of contamination but in some particular stains of the land, minuet residual contamination still remains. Fauna: One of the main populations affected were fish and amphibians. Since the Aznalcollar spill, the riverbed has been recolonized with fish and amphibians and they have survived without any problems. In 2004, it was detected that 6 different species of fish had laid eggs. It was the 1st year since the spill that different species of fish laying eggs was detected. Flora: The contamination of metals in plants has decreased with time. 2.5 million plants have been planted in order to restore the affected area. The majority were planted between the Entremuros marsh and the Los Frailes mine. The Entremuros area was restored by replanting in small plots. This method allowed the ecosystem to improve naturally. To restore the functioning of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems which were damaged or ruined by the Aznalcollar spill. The large amount of area that was affected, from the mine to the entrance to the Entremuros swamp, has now been restored. The aim is to create a fluvial ecological corridor. The gravel extractions, or the agricultural occupation has caused the Guadiamar riverbed to suffer extreme transformations. When the riverbed was being restored it was thought that it was more critical to recover the processes for fluvial dynamics, which had been modified, rather than recreate the original morphology of the river. In 2004, it had been noted that the natural dynamic of the river, particularly the flood plains, had been recuperated. Also, non-indigenous vegetation had been removed as instructed. Since the spill, there used to be many gravel exploitations found on the bed of the river of the Guadiamar, between the upper and middle branches. These were reformed serving two purposes. One use is environmental recuperation and the other is for the use of the public. Entremuros marshes: The main reasoning behind the activities was to ensure the riverbed was recuperated by the removal of the impacts that hindered the natural functioning. The results have shown to be considerably good. The fauna and flora have quickly colonized the area. To promote a model for the management of the various uses of the region so that ecological heterogeneity could be promoted in order to reinstate the different species and natural processes among the mountain range and the coast. Positive results were found on the movement of land animals through the Corridor, in the middle course of the Guadiamar River. There are many communities that began to become established in the Corridor, such as the eagle, rabbit, and the lynx. As a result it has aided the purpose of the ecological corridor of the Guadiamar River. The Corridor has needed to be attached through the northern part as this restored the river basin of the Guadiamar River and the mining region in its upper course. The restoration continues to be followed up, even today, as it ensures its function as a fluvial ecological corridor and the future tendencies of the river. To improve and promote the quality of life of the many people living in the area through the strategies of development fitting with the conservation of the functions of their natural systems. Public use: The Green Corridor is now recognized as a tourist destination. It has tails that can be used for walking, biking and horse riding. A variety of infrastructures have been constructed including recreational areas, a botanical garden, visitor centers, etc. There has been sign posts put up of the area, and also the roads. There have also been guides produced on the infrastructures and programs in the Green Corridor (for public use). Other uses: In the Green Corridor there are many kind of acts prohibited which include hunting, fishing, and raising livestock. Also, on the grounds of the old mine an environmental services site has been constructed. Relations with the surrounding population: Many environmental educational activities were developed in order to educate the population, but mostly for schoolchildren. A lot of the people living in the surrounding area were not aware of the many activities in the Green Corridor and its ideas. To make it clear to the population, it was necessary to cover the wildlife values, historical, landscape etc of the Green Corridor. To contribute to the conversion of the Network of Protected Natural Areas of Andalusia as an arrangement of areas, which are connected by ecological corridors and which fluvial ones stand out the most. The Green Corridor had to be declared as a Protected landscape in order to comply with this objective. The Green Corridor does not reach up to the north of Aznalcollar therefore it is not connected as an ecological corridor with the coast and mountain range. To operate as a model of integrated planning of a Mediterranean basin with could be extrapolated to other regions. The WWF has recognized that the Guadiamar Green Corridor operates as a model of basin restoration. The office for the Mediterranean selected one of its projects to be a model of management and restoration of Mediterranean wetlands. The WWF gave the lessons learned of the Guadiamar to Romania to help them after the mine accident of Baia Mare.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Relationship between stories :: essays research papers

The Relationship between Stories and Their Sources   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Most authors use some type of source when writing a story. The source could be religious, scientific, or something else that is inspiring to them. Even great writers such as Shakespeare had a source in which their stories came from. The source can be used for many different purposes. A certain author may use a source to show different parallels between two stories or to show similarities between events or characters. They may use the source to prove a point or to add meaning to the book. The source could also just be an ambiguous connection that helps complete the story. Whatever the authors reason for picking a certain source it seems to give the story completion and significance. In this class, we read many stories in which the source deals with religion and especially the gospels. In this paper, I will discuss these different stories and how they relate to their religous sources.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first story we read in class was, ?gA Visit of Charity?h by Eudora Welty. In this story, the source that is eluded to is the Genesis story of Adam and Eve. The story begins with Marian, a young campfire girl, who is on her way to an Old Ladies?f Home. Before entering the home she stops by some prickly shrubs. The outside of the home was covered by beautiful shrubbery and the whitewash brick building reflected the sunlight. Yet, the inside of the home was in bad shape. It smelled musky and the linoleum on the floor was bulging up. The details Welty adds are significant because it shows two different worlds. The one world Marian still sees which is beautiful like the Garden of Eden and the world she is slowly stepping into where things are not beautiful and good. The story continues with Marian visiting two old ladies who fought between themselves the whole time she was there. Marian did not want to be at the home and especially dislike visiting these two ladies. Although, the one lady was friendly to Marian she was still scared of both ladies. At the end of the visit the one lady grabs Marian?fs arm and asks her for a penny or a nickel. Marian runs from the old lady without looking back. When she gets outside she grabs the apple she hid in the prickly bushes on her way into the Home. As she jumped onto the bus Marian took a big bite of the apple. This is the most significant part of the story because it shows how Marian knew what she was doing was wrong but she carelessly did it

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Classical Music Essay -- Music Musical Classical Essays

Classical Music n : traditional genre of music conforming to an established form and appealing to critical interest and developed musical taste [syn: serious music] Classical music, as the name suggests, is a well-established kind of music, at least in the West. Classical music concerts take place in every cultural center, and they take many forms, from a solo to large symphonic orchestras, from a sonata to an opera. This kind of music has many fans, especially among circles of intellectuals. But how did this great kind of music start? What made the great composers compose? And how was this all used before the time of recorded music and portable mp3 players? These are the questions we are going to examine today. Music historians place the beginnings of classical music in Europe during the 1730s, though there is not a clear cut-point, since it gradually evolved from the Baroque style that was dominant before. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Christoph Willibald Gluck are considered to be the founders of classical music. But what triggered this new kind of music? Ask a physicist, and the answer is quite clear: The new ideas of "natural philosophy", proposed in the late 17 th century by Sir Isaac Newton, suggested that the universe has a clear structure, well founded in axioms, articulated and orderly. These ideas were reflected in the music of the 18 th century, but also in architecture, literature, and the arts in general. This new style in the arts is referred to as "Classicism". Back in those days, music was not as common as it is now. One could not carry thousands of songs in one's pocket. Music was rather a privilege of the royalty and their court. For example, one of the most impor... ... it can be heard in parks, parking lots, train and underground stations. It can be found even in the pockets of people carrying mp3 players around. Young people listen to it, old people listen to it, babies listen to it. Classical music is not only a kind of music; it's a way to concentrate, to relax, to worship. Classical music is a way of life. Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_music_era http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Newton.html http://www.classical.net/music/links/musiclnk.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/422644.stm http://www.freenewmexican.com/artsfeatures/10701.html http://www.healingproducts.com/sound_health_series.htm#concentration http://www.freenewmexican.com/artsfeatures/10701.html http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/clipserve/B000001GDR001001/0/104-1287315-5901551

Opening the Doors of Perception :: Music Musical Band Musicians Papers

Opening the Doors of Perception In August of 1965, Jim Morrison met his friend Ray on the beach in Los Angeles and sang him a few lines of a song he had just written. Ray played keyboard for a band at the time and had known Jim since they both went to UCLA, but he didnt know that Jim could write songs or sing. In a few weeks, Jim had taken the lead vocal position in Ray's band, Rick and the Ravens, and the group had produced a demo recording with Aura Records. In the next sixteen months, Jim, Ray, John Densmore (a drummer), and Robby Krieger (a guitarist) formed The Doors and by 1971, The Doors had written, produced, and released some of the most popular, memorable, rebellious and intelligent music of their time. When Jim began writing his own music, he never had written a song and he had never been a singer either. Jim was living on the rooftop of a building near Venice Beach and he wrote much of his material about the people, places and things he saw in L.A. One of his earliest songs, Soul Kitchen, was written about a small deli in Los Angeles; this song eventually became a popular concert piece and was recorded in a couple versions ranging from three-and-a-half to over seven minutes long. Soul Kitchen was released on The Doors first album (The Doors) in the beginning of 1967 and captured much of the darkness and mystery that the group soon became known for. In one passage, Morrison sings "Speaking secret alphabets; I light another cigarette; learn to forget; learn to forget" and also references the late night scene in Los Angeles he was so wrapped up in, "Stumblin in the neon groves". Personally, I like Soul Kitchen not only because of the lyrics and reference to an actual place, but also because of the rhythm. Ray Manzarek was and still is an excellent keyboardist. Soul Kitchen opens with a mesmerizing keyboard solo and Ray's ivory tones remain present throughout the entire song. Another of The Doors many songs that features the keyboard is When The Musics Over. This song was one of my favorites when I bought my first Doors cd (Strange Days) and I still like it quite a bit. When The Musics Over is a very complicated song to understand and I still dont think I understand it after hearing it countless times.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

An application of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to Carl Rogers 10 Principles of Learning

An application of Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs to Carl Rogers 10 Principles of LearningIntroduction The objective of this paper is to explore the relevance of applying Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to the 10 principles of learning put forward by Carl Rogers in ‘Freedom to Learn’ (1969).Rogers was one of the founders of the humanistic approach to psychotherapy and he was also a fervent educationalist. ‘Freedom to Learn’ (Rogers,1969) and ‘Freedom to Learn for the 80’s’ (Rogers,1983) were both a direct challenge to the education system in the United States. His introduction starts: ‘Our education system is, I believe, failing to meet the needs of our society’ (Rogers,1983).He questioned those who were saying ‘We must tell children what is right and wrong, that we must teach and they must follow’ (Rogers,1983). He noted that large and powerful groups were  insisting that students must not read certain books and believed teachers operated in a climate of fear, unable to encourage children to grow to their full potential. The very title ‘Freedom to Learn’ was a statement of discontent with the system.Maslow, in contrast to looking at the educational system, focused on the individual. His theory of human motivation was published towards the end of the World War II (1943). Maslow was heavily influenced by Freud (but did not consider himself a Freudian). In simple terms, Maslow took an optimistic view of life in contrast to Freud’s pessimism.Maslow’s views in many ways mirrored Jung and Adler but again, he did not consider himself a Jungian or an Adlerian. He formed his own theory that all humans are motivated to achieve their true potential providing that their basic psychological needs are met.He took a holistic view of life that the human creature begins as a kind of acorn, with all the characteristics of a fully grown tree inside it. His theory of human motivation became known as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.In this essay I point out the congruence of the two psychologists’ theories – Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Rogers’ 10 principles of learning. What is learning?  Ã¢â‚¬ËœHuman beings have a natural potential for learning’ (Rogers first principle,1969). Rogers (1994) puts learning along a continuum, whereby at one end learning is not experiential and there is little or no meaning, with ‘syllables’ quickly forgotten. At the other end, ‘significant, meaningful experiential learning’ occurs. A very simple explanation of the two would be, one can read a book on swimming or, talk to a coach, but until any meaningful experiential work has taken place (i.e. one gets into the water)  learning will not commence.Rogers furthered his argument by saying that the education system had traditionally thought of learning as an orderly type of cognitive, left-brain activity w hich could be measured, ranked and ordered. However in his view, if a student is conditioned or even forced under threat to learn in this way then he may be capable of ‘regurgitating’ knowledge but not necessarily understanding it. Rogers believed that also utilising the right side of the brain was required in order to involve the whole person in the learning process. This would appear to be a more complete understanding of learning.Maslow stated that theory separated from experience and practice could be very dangerous. ‘On the other hand, the practical person who does not understand theory is also handicapped’(Goble,1970). It is clear Maslow supports Rogers view of experiential learning.Our Basic Needs Maslow perceived the human as driven, motivated and propelled by potent forces and called these forces human needs: ‘Human needs arrange themselves in hierarchies of pre-potency, that is to say the appearance of one need usually rests on the prior sat isfaction of another, more pre-potent need. Man is a perpetually wanting animal’ (Maslow,1943). He also added that no need or drive could be treated as if it were isolated or discrete and that every drive was related to the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the other drives.Maslow presented his theory of motivation as a pyramid-like structure covering five levels of need; psychological, safety, love and belonging, esteem and – at the pinnacle – self-actualisation.  The psychological needs are somatic (i.e. they relate to the body not the mind) and as such are not strictly motivated actions. Maslow defines the somatic drives as: air, food, water, sex and secretion. Once the somatic drives are met, motivated drives will follow.Significantly, Maslow was the first to expound the premise that learning can only commence once the psychological needs have been satisfied and that at least part of each stage of learning must be achieved before progressing up t he pyramid.He was particularly concerned that once the basic needs have been met, children need to ‘learn to be responsible for each other, to care for each other, not only for the sake of others but for their own sake’ (Goble,1970).Maslow also believed there was no fast track route to self-actualisation and that learning could slip backwards if circumstances changed. For example, the child when frightened clings to his mother or the child berated by parents for not getting the grades brings fear and insecurity, leaving him to scurry anxiously back down the stairs to relative safety and security.With the above point in mind let us continue our focus on Rogers’ principles and explore where there are similarities in approach. ‘Those learnings which are threatening to the self are more easily perceived and assimilated when external threats are at a minimum’ (Rogers’ fourth principle,1969). Conversely when external threats are present, learning st ops and we seek safety and comfort.Rogers’ example is of a boy with reading difficulties being forced to read aloud in class and then ridiculed by his peers. Another would be the school bully who exploits the weaknesses of their classmates. This stops learning and may even lead to retreat to a lower level of Maslow’s hierarchy where such threats are at a minimum. Life has changed  considerably. Special needs schools and provision within schools for dyslexia and the less able are further examples.‘When threat to the self is low, experience can be perceived in differentiated fashion and learning can proceed’ (Rogers’ fifth principle, 1969). It is this point that also underpinned Rogers humanistic approach to psychotherapy.He, the teacher, facilitator and the therapist must have: regard to the serious and meaningful problem, he must demonstrate congruence, show unconditional positive regard to his client or student and give empathic understanding. Wh ile I have condensed these four significant statements into a single sentence, together, they form part of the foundation stones of Rogers Humanistic and Person-centered approach to learning and understanding.Following these foundation stones has enabled many teachers, managers and therapist alike to help facilitate learning and assist the student or client reach the third level of Maslow’s hierarchy, love and belonging.Maslow stated that love was not to be confused with sex which is a psychological need. He likened Carl Rogers’ definition of love to ‘that of being deeply understood and deeply accepted’ (Goble,1970). He rejected Freud’s tendency to assert that love derived from sex. Maslow also felt the absence of love stifled growth. Crucially both Rogers and Maslow saw love and acceptance as a pivotal point in both learning and the path to self discovery.Humans who reach this stage carry with them an awareness of life. I have introduced Carl Jung (1955) as he described this awareness or imprint as containing: ones collective unconscious, their personal unconscious (which  includes social conditioning) and their ego.It is likely that this presents the most difficult stage in the learning process. ‘Learning which involves a change in self organization in the perception of oneself is threatening and tends to be resisted ’(Rogers’ third principle,1969).There is a whole new genre of ‘self help’ books designed to address this very challenge. A simple example, ‘It is through the pain of confronting and resolving problems that we learn’ (Scott Peck,1983). The writings of Aldous Huxley, Eckhart Toll and Ken Wilber are but a few of the many teachers who’s books have assisted parents, students and clients alike take the next step from love and acceptance to self-esteem along Maslow’s hierarchy.To change ones perception of life is for many the first stage of determining just what ‘self’ represents. Early adulthood is often a time to challenge parents, religious beliefs and much of the social conditioning one has accepted as ‘truth’ for much of one’s life.Once the student/client can believe in him/herself, be willing to break through past conditioning, great discovery and learning is possible.  Ã¢â‚¬ËœSignificant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the student as having relevance for his own purposes†¦and [when] relevant to the goal, learning takes place with great rapidity’ (Rogers’ second principle,1969). Maslow would appear to concur. His concept of the ‘peak experience’, a moment of oneness with self and the universe is a breakthrough moment in the journey. To have such a moment and rush to a higher level of existence is a ‘moment of selfactualisation without the recipient becoming self actualised’ (Maslow,1970). It does provide a key motivator to continue.These peak experiences motivate and provide renewed energy and confidence, ‘Much significant learning is acquired by doing’ (Rogers’ sixth principle,1969). As the student grows, motivated by peak experiences, feeling safe and solving problems are an effective builder of self-esteem.Maslow extended his ideas in later years and found that people have two ‘categories’ of esteem needs; self-esteem and esteem from other people. It was the development of esteem from others which caused concern to Maslow in his later life and its impact upon his hierarchy. Even up to his death in 1970 he was reformulating and refining his opinions of the concept of self-actualisation. He held the view, esteem for many had become the only or most important goal. He believed the individual who allows his desires to distort his perception of self, diminishes his psychological health.This concurred with Rogers’ ninth principle, ‘Independence, creativity a nd self-reliance are all facilitated when self criticism and self-evaluation are basic and evaluation by others is of secondary importance’(1969). Rogers’ eighth principle makes a similar point, ‘Self-initiated learning which involves the whole person of the learner – feelings as well as intellect, is the most lasting and pervasive’ (1969). In the current economic climate, status and esteem from others appears to be the ultimate goal for many. Maslow noted, ‘The commonly seen hatred or resentment of or jealousy of goodness, truth, beauty†¦is largely†¦determined by threat of loss of self-esteem’ (Maslow 1968). As such, self criticism and evaluation by others will be resisted, the very opposite of Rogers’ ninth principle. ‘and evaluation by others is of secondary importance’ (1969).Openness to such higher learning requires responsibility. ‘Learning is facilitated when the student participates responsibl y in the learning process’ (Rogers’ seventh principle,1969). The opinions of Maslow would indicate protection of self-worth, ego and opinion of others to block a willingness to continue learning. At this stage the student/client remains at the level of esteem or may even retreat down the hierarchical stairs for love and comfort.Maslow saw rising above esteem to self actualisation as the most difficult steps to climb. He believed that even if all the lower needs are met, a new discontent and restlessness will follow unless ‘ the individual is doing what he is fitted for†¦ if he is to be ultimately happy’ (Maslow 1943). This statement dovetails perfectly into Rogers’ tenth and last of his principles:- ‘The most socially useful learning in the modern world is the learning of the process of learning, a continuous openness to experience and incorporation into oneself of the process of change’.Conclusion Having applied Maslow’s hi erarchy of needs to Rogers ten principles, I am able to see the obvious synergy, the seamless way that all learning must follow the five stages of needs and the benefit to any education system that using his theory of motivation would bring.Maslow's basic needs could therefore underpin an education syllabus that teaches everyone (rich and poor) that we live on a planet of limited resources for food, water and the energy to provide shelter and warmth.Maslow has always called for freedom to speak, freedom to do what one wishes  as long as no harm is done to others. In his later life Maslow questioned his theory that if the entire human species is growth orientated, why do so many fail to reach their full potential?He concluded that there was an innate human tendency towards inertia, which he explained as being psychological – the need for rest and recovery and to conserve energy. Perhaps he saw an unsustainable world, tired and exhausted, the body scrambling down his hierarch y to a place of safety. I think so. The tired exhausted body retreats, takes shortcuts. Add to this recession, political uncertainty and fear. Ultimately we remove our freedom to learn and indeed our freedom to reach our highest natural potential.A combination of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Rogers 10 Principles of Learning provide the perfect templates for a 21st century education system. Clear for all who wish to embrace it.

Monday, September 16, 2019

The Person Who Inspire Me

PART 2: Writing DR. APJ ABDUL KALAM -the person who inspire me- What does someone do to inspire you? To me, inspiration is the process of instilling faith in someone to motivate him or her to do something. Many people do things simply out of the kindness in their heart, and do not realize they are inspiring others around them. To me, a news paper boy who is became an Indian scientist and also administrator who served as the 11th President of India, inspires me the most. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually referred to as Dr. A. P. J.Abdul Kalam, is the most motivater to my study and life. He inspires me to do things by example. For example, in Dr. Kalam life, his father wasn't educated but he wanted Kalam to study. Dr. Kalam would get up at 4 am, bathed and then go for his mathematics class. After his morning class, Kalam along with his cousin Samsuddin went around town distributing the newspaper. As the town had no electricity, kerosene lamps were lit at his home between 7 pm and 9 pm. But because Kalam studied until 11, his mother would save some for him for later use.Dr. Kalam always said to students that to succeed in our mission, we must have single-minded devotion to our goal. We have to dream before our dreams can come true. When the whole universe is friendly to us and conspires only to give the best to those who dream and work. These are the powerful quotes by Dr Abdul Kalam that help his success followed him. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan and Bharat Ratna, and then he became the President of India. He is one of the few presidents who have touched the hearts of so many poor children in the country.Because he also came from a poor background, he knew that the power of education in changing our future. In my conclution, quotes of Dr Abdul Kalam are always make me more stronger to achieve my dreams comes true and I would not be the person I am today without him. PART 1: Planning |Topic |a news paper boy who is became an Indian scientist and also administrator who served as the| | |11th President of India, inspires me the most. | |Topic sentences |Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually referred to as Dr.A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, is the | | |most motivater to my study and life. | |Body with supporting details |He inspires me to do things by example. | | |His father wasn't educated but he wanted Kalam to study. | | |After his morning class, Kalam along with his cousin Samsuddin went around town | | |distributing the newspaper. | |As the town had no electricity, kerosene lamps were lit at his home between 7 pm and 9 pm. | | |But because Kalam studied until 11, his mother would save some for him for later use. | | |Dr. Kalam always said to students that to succeed in our mission, we must have | | |single-minded devotion to our goal. We have to dream before our dreams can come true. | |He was awarded the Padma Bhushan and Bharat Ratna, and then he became the President of | | |India. | | |He also came from a poor background, he knew that the power of education in changing our | | |future. | |Concluding sentences |In conclution, quotes of Dr Abdul Kalam are always make me more stronger and I would not be| | |the person I am today without him. REFERENCES 1. http://www. wonderfulinfo. com/winfo/life_history_apj_abdul_kalam. php 2. http://www. caclubindia. com/forum/quotes-by-dr-abdul-kalam–104060. asp#. UJOnCpiT9Ic 3. http://changeminds. wordpress. com/ 4. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/A. _P. _J. _Abdul_Kalam To me, my husband Dave inspires me the most. He is a very loving and caring person. He gives me the strength in my heart to do whatever I put my mind to. He inspires me to do things by example. He inspires me most when I see how his generosity makes other people feel, and how good it makes him feel because of their reaction.From that example, it makes me want to do something so I can experience the same feeling. Dave always inspires me to make goals for myself, chase my dreams, and to do things t o help others. He volunteers whenever he can. A few of his favorites are Cub Scouts, Drug Awareness Programs, Children's Hospitals, Supporting our Veterans, Community Highway Clean-up, and Habitat for Society. He is also very dedicated to helping his country. He has been in the United States Navy for almost 20 years as a Senior Chief Builder in the Seabees.He will retire soon, but his desire to help our country and community will continue. It was one rainy evening in particular I will never forget. We were sitting in the living room discussing his plans for a motorcycle run to raise money for the Veterans Hospital in Hampton Virginia. The TV was playing in the background, and our son was sitting at the kitchen table working on his homework. In the middle of our conversation, his cell phone rang. He stepped outside to take the call, and I went to check our son's progress with his homework. When he came back into the house, he did not say a word.He just turned the volume on the TV up, and started to watch the coverage for the upcoming hurricane. He began to explain the phone call he had just received. It was from his boss in the military. He said if the hurricane were going to be as strong as they think it will be, he would have to leave right away to be there for the disaster recovery. This started to make me worry about what was going to happen to the motorcycle run. We had over 200 people already pre-registered, the t-shirts ordered, the food was being prepared, the permits were in hand, and the police escort had already been set up.I knew this was something Dave was passionate about, and it had to go on. Suddenly, on August 29, Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf coast. There was severe damage mostly in the cities of Mobile, Alabama, Waveland, Biloxi/Gulfport, Mississippi, and New Orleans. At least 1,836 people lost their lives due to the severe storm surge damage. Dave was ready to go as soon as he heard the news, so he could provide help to those who lost every thing. More than 3,000 U. S. Navy Seabees from all over the United States aided in the hurricane Katrina relief efforts.Hurricane Katrina was so devastating; Dave and his crew volunteered to stay longer, and could not make it back in time for the motorcycle run for the veteran's hospital. His passion to help his community, and our country inspired me to take over the motorcycle run. I wanted to make a difference in people’s lives just as Dave would have done. He wanted to make life a little easier not only for our veterans in the hospital, but also the people who lost everything due to the hurricane.After a lot of hard work and dedication, it was a very rewarding feeling knowing I could help that day. The motorcycle run was a huge success, and we were able to present them with a check for over five thousand dollars. Without the inspiration from my husband, and continuing to do things out of the kindness of his heart, I would not have been motivated to do the things I have don e. He continues to inspire me to do things everyday, and I would not be the person I am today without him.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Othello Analysis Essay

Jealousy is defined as feeling and/or showing envy of someone for their achievements and advantages. Jealousy is known to be one of the world’s worst emotions, except jealousy is not an emotion. Jealousy is a deadly disease and should not be considered an emotion proving that while in a jealous state there is a complete loss of control. A person in the jealous state is completely incapable of controlling their emotions, behaviour and their intellectual process making them vulnerable in all situations. The play Othello written by William Shakespeare proves to be one of the most profound pieces of literature includes many characters that are diagnosed with the deadly disease that is Jealousy. â€Å"O, beware, my lord, of jealousy; /It is the green eyed monster which doth mock/ [t]he meat it feeds on† (Othello, 3.3.165-167). A very vital and traumatizing symptom that comes with having the Jealous disease is the psychological loss of control. The diagnosed character is incapable of controlling their thoughts, often leading them to making unreasonable decisions. In the play Othello, we see many characters that are ill with the Jealous disease and are battling to keep their thoughts intact. Iago is one of the first characters to be introduced into the play who possess the illness. When Iago proves to have the symptom of psychological control loss, we can see it when he states, â€Å"I am not what I am† (Othello, 1.1.65). This is very significant because throughout the play it is established that Iago is really contrasting the character who he claims to be; loyal and honest. It is given that Iago is possessed by his illness; forcing him to be the deceiving, smart, and insincere character. When Iago loses psychological control, he makes a decision far too quickly, without processing all the elements. â€Å"Call her father, Rouse him. Make after him, poison his delight, Proclaim him in the streets. Incense her kinsmen, And, though he in a fertile climate dwell, Plague him with flies.† (Othello, 1.1.68-71) In this passage, Iago is speaking with Roderigo and has invented plans to destroy Desdemona and Othello’s secret relationship by exposing them to Desdemona’s father, Brabantio; awaiting him that the two have eloped. Iago does not take a moment to reconsider the steps he wishes to pursue as a normal person would, Iago does not judge the consequences of his actions or what affects might it cause. This passage is very significant because it is this one simple decision made by Iago that determines and introduces all the other conflicts later in the play. It is established that Iago is in a Jealous state, that he is not in control of his thoughts and should not be held accountable for any actions he may pursue. One who has what is deemed a â€Å"normal† intellectual process can move forward to collecting their thoughts to make rational decisions, contradictory to one who is sick with the Jealous disease who lacks to control their thoughts. As we can see through Iago the Jealous disease has a powerful symptom that controls your intellectual process and therefore someone should not be held accountable for their thoughts while in jealous state, for Jealousy is what triggers a character to performing abnormal acts, this leading to the next symptom, symptom of changes in behaviour. A person must always have control over their actions because as we all know, if they do not have power over their actions, it may lead to their downfall. Many characters in the play had uncontrolled actions that led to their own defeat as result of being in the Jealous state. The main character Othello, the brave Moor who was always taking cautious steps as a leader, quickly changed when he went into a Jealous state. â€Å"I love thee;/[b]ut never more be officer of mine† (Othello, 2.3.227-228). This passage proves the courageous Othello when he took away Cassio’s position, for the benefit of the citizens of Cyprus. â€Å"Devil! (s triking her)† (Othello, 4.1.228). This passage is where Othello is incapable to control his actions and slaps Desdemona in front of a crowd surprisingly to the original characteristics that defined Othello initially. If you compare the two passages you can distinguish the difference Othello in a balanced and unbalanced state. The illness that transmitted into his biological system quickly, took over his ability to have power over his brain. â€Å"It is too late. (he smothers her)† (Othello, 5.2.83). This passage is very significant because as the reader we know that Othello’s love for  his beloved wife is pure and he would never commit such a crime, but since Othello is unable to break his bond of the Jealous disease, Othello kills his own wife. Othello wanted to be the dominate power, and had no power over his decisions of actions leading to his downfall. The actions one takes are controlled by their thoughts and emotions which neither of is a person in a Jealous state able to control. The emotional trauma that one feels while fighting the Jealous disease is horrifying. They are incapable of controlling their emotions and have high mood swings, which can result in overpowering their intellectual thought process that moves forward into taking control of their actions. In the play we are able to see characters whose emotions are uncontrollable and change very quickly. First, we have Othello who is in a battle with his emotions when he learns that Desdemona may be having an affair. â€Å"Farwell the tranquil mind! Farewell content!† (3.3.356) This is the first quote from Othello and shortly after he says, â€Å"Villain, be sure thou prove my love a whore, Be sure of it.† (3.3.367-368) as we can see Othello is going from insane to angry, and he has no control over who he has rage towards, for a second it is Desdemona and the next second it is Iago. Othello conflicts with the multiple emotions he is feeling and is has no power over the release of his emotions. This signifies that Jealousy is a disease because Othello does not feel â€Å"jealous†; he feels many other emotions in this moment of the play while ill. Roderigo who also suffers from the Jealous disease also is unable to control his emotions. â€Å"Nay, I think it is scurvy and begin to find myself fopped in it.†(4.2.201-202)In this passage Roderigo speaks to Iago telling Iago that he knows Iago is cheating him. Although later in the play, Roderigo continues to work with Iago in hopes of killing Cassio. â€Å"And yet he hath given me satisfying reasons.†(5.1.9)As we observe Roderigo, we observe his different and quickly changing emotions around Iago. Roderigo although figuring out that Iago is not a good person, when in a Jealous state cannot control his emotions and feels that Iago will be loyal in the end, this leads to his own downfall because in the end it is Iago who kills Roderigo. This signifies that a character with the Jealous disease is unable to control their emotions and have emotions controlled by a disease. Just as they have no control their behavioural and psychological changes. All in all, through the play Othello we learn that jealousy is a disease so strong;  no one can control their body. Their emotional, psychological, and conduct processes all change and make it very hard to process like normal. A person fighting this illness is very unhealthy and unsafe; which often leads them to their own destruction. There is no medication to cure the disease and no one should be held liable for their thoughts, actions or emotions. We can use this lesson as an example to help us think of jealousy as the disease it is and find a cure or a method to relieve a patient from all that they go through when in a jealous state.