Thursday, February 28, 2019
I wholly disagree with the nonion that When you give everyone a voice and everyone major federal agency, the system usually ends up in a genuinely good carry. This idea is non only naive and inadvisable but simply untrue. Cyber determent , cyber stalking and cyber paedophilia argon threats that ingest sprung up in recent twelvemonths in tandem with the modernistic phenomenon that is social media where everybodys voice and opinion back incline be perceive (well, read ) no matter how inappropriate illegal or damage it may be to another(prenominal) soulfulness or notwithstanding a group of spate.Along with these cyber s charge per unit base problems, content shared or stick on online can often step over the threshold of the meshing and pertain someones day to day life. However, seldom the voice and spring given by the internet and social media is responsible for awareness campaigns such(prenominal) as Kony 2012. Unfortunately the harsh and brutal reality is, when p eople can hide behind ready reckoner screens, even gain anonymity if they wish, the darker side of a somebody quite often shines through and the system does not end up in a really good place.Cyber bulling, the scourge of my generation and cosmosy generations to come is vicious, devastating and unapolo learnic. Before the years of social media and even widespread mobile phone ownership, lets say pre 2000 bullying would generally take place in inculcate corridors, maybe within clubs or organisations and within the workplace. Even though bullying was and always will be a traumatic experience, in those old age it was escapable, a victim of bullying could go home, or to a friends firm or anywhere really discover side where they were being bullied and be free of it.With the advent of social networking and text contentednesss the torment of bullying has been make inescapable. Poisonously worded text messages, tormenting wall posts and mocking comments being fired at a person night a nd day by a coward secrecy behind a computer screen is taking bullying to a whole new extreme. In my opinion cyber bullying is far to a greater extent detrimental, vicious and calculated then(prenominal) ordinary bullying , because of the power a person can feel hiding behind a computer screen punching out letters, words ,sentences at a rapid pace not even facing the person the toxic words are aimed at. Internet famous former site model and myspace girl Leda Muir admitted she has been a victim of hurtful ,offensive and threatening messages on the internet and in the ancient was also guilty of direct them to other people. She describes the instant mission sending offensive messages gave her, and how she simply forgot about it minutes later. When she talks about receiving comments and messages connatural to the ones she herself once sent, it is an entirely different experience.She describes how each derogatory comment and message she received stayed with her for weeks, and how it made her feel belittled, humiliated and depressed even when she didnt know any of the bullies personally. These bullies probably felt a similar rush to the one Leda described ,which probably comes from feeling drunk on power after all power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. In the year two thousand and twelve cyber stalking was more common then physical harassment.While in certain aspects it is similar to cyber bullying it is more disturbing, it is based on a twisted obsession with usually a iodin person with a determined and perverse want to control that person in some aspect. Unlike cyber bullies, cyber stalkers are not chasing an instant power high they desire something much darker. The aim of a cyber stalker is to get their victim to yield to them in one way or another and may involve other people in this plan.Social media enables these individuals to obtain instruction such as where you live, work and even who your family members are which in move around gi ves them the power to make threats to you online using this information. As extreme as it sounds anyone could be cyber stalked, even as it turns out, Mark Zuckerburg himself who probably has the most heavily defend profile on facebook.His stalker Pradeep Manukonda attempted to contact both Zuckerburg and his sister Randi requesting money. When the police told him to cease contacting Zuckerburg , he ignored them and continued to send the facebook chief operating officer e-mails, hand written letters(in one of which he describes the power to communicate) and flowers. He even went to the extent of travelling to face books main offices and even Mark Zuckerburgs house.This was evidently a traumatic experience for Zuckerburg has he took out a restraining order against his stalker , this is a prime showcase of when everyone is given power buy information obtained on the internet, things do not end in a good place. Finally the most stinking and disturbing threat on the internet, cyber p aedophilia. 99% of children between the ages of twelve and xvii have access to the internet and this is something cyber predators are well aware of.Using huckster rooms, web cam and an array of social networks paedophiles have the power to seek out potential victims. For example in two thousand and three , a man posted a message in a schmoose room requesting sexual favours in exchange for money, out of curiosity a pair of fourteen year old girls responded to this message and they were both violated. The man also texted the victims in order to intimidate and threaten them. This clearly illustrates how somebody can ill-treat the voice and power given to them by lucre to horrific effect.When everyone is given a voice, and given power it is up to the person themselves how they use that power. Some my raise awareness, some my rise to fabled internet fame and some may just spend twenty minutes look for their news feed. However the idea of the whole system ending up in a good place i s one of fantasy, some people can turn into power hungry monsters online while others may abuse their voice and power for disturbing reasons. When you give every one a voice and everyone power, the system wont end up in a really good place.
TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES TAgraphical user interfaceG CAMPUS Project Proposal Resort stockpile trunk Prepared by Matitu, Ruel Llosa, Emmanuel A. MAAM ANDONG Professor Project Proposal Project style Resort Reservation dust Proponents We the Computer Students shamble this Proposal for the purpose of Easy Access for the entropy of the Resort Reservation. manoeuvre Participants entirely Customers that Looking for having A Vacation this Coming Summer. Objectives To be sufficient to make a fast and complete services and information that provides your reservation.To be Able to make a Budget earlier for knowing the prices and appeal that you may definitely pay. Project Description Resort Reservation System is to be able to store the information from the customer and make them a reservation. This protrusion is for the owner convenience, it will help saving all the information from the costumer into a database and recognise the reservation properly. Graphical User interface + Functionality Our Systems Main Function is when we started to Register on our syllabus and gave all reading such as our Name , Age and what Cattage that we wants o Reserved and Use. Our System will already make other GUI showing the compilation of reserved costumer information and when the owner wants to retrieve the data of any of the reserved costumers it will show a gist Box showing the complete information of the costumer. If the user wants to save another reservation from a costumer he will just clear up the New Reservation on the menu strip likewise if he wants to have another inquiry he will just check the New Inquiries. It will show how much will be the reservation will cost after clicking the Calculate on the menu strip.All Information that they want to know on Resort Reservation System is already there by just clicking the About on the Menu Strip. We hit this System to make our Customer Comfortable before taking up on Reservation. Expected project res ult If we accomplished to make this Proposal, This project will be used to apply it for the development of our Resort solicitude and improve the power of Technology. It makes also sense to those whom wants a partnership regarding on business.It may takes of many advantages in our Society and life will receive easier to those whom looking for any Resort Reservation administration. Justification By Proposing this System, We bear first say that the problem is when the Customer is looking for Reservation, By creating this system makes easy for all customer to know information about the faculty of the Resort by just clicking on this Program, We can say that All Information that they need to know whether its price and Capacity of Persons, they manage and budget before taking up on Reservation fashion or Resort. Lets make Life Easier
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
In my opinion, there go a foc development be a huge business transition in organizations and the way business functions with the more and more generation of information every day. at that place has been massive increase in the way info is being employ and is getting difficult to manage data. It is very important to get victorian insights as it controls the influence of big data analytics to inform key strategical finiss. The big data provides competitive vantage to the businesses in terms of decision taking carry through. Big data analytics facilitates in taking important decisions as they make it more agile and responsive.With increasing digitization in the world, businesses straightway have too much data generated every day. With this increasing data it is very difficult to manage this data and get proper insights from this data. scarcely bigger the data, harder the analytical process becomes. As big data doesnt authentically mean only the entreaty of data or just h aving the information, it in like manner includes all the processes and tools that help in the analysis of this big data and the results derived from it.The biggest advantage if big data is that it hatful be applied to time joke detection, complex competitive analysis, call center optimization, consumer sentiment analysis, intelligent affair management, and to manage smart power grids. Big data is characterized by triple primary factorsVolume (quantity over quality)Velocity (too much generation of data every day)Variety (different types of data).Following are the four types of Big entropy BI that affects a businessPrescriptive Analytics refers to the rules and recommendations for the following steps to be taken.Predictive Analytics help in analyzing the data and help in k straightawaying what might line up and derive what steps can be taken.Diagnostic Analytics is usually to analyze the past data and what happened, why it happened. This is to derive how the analysis will h elp in fashioning the splasher easier to under expect.Descriptive Analytics will in knowing what is happening now based on incoming data. It uses the real time data and splasher in order to carry out analysis.With the big data, along with a lot of benefits, the decision- qualification process faces a lot of challenges. According to me below are the pros and cons of using big data in the decision-making process.Advantages of Big Data in Decision-MakingIt helps in gaining the market advantageIt helps in building trust with clientsAs the speed of collection is often too fast, the decisions can be taken at a faster paceDisadvantages of Big Data in Decision-MakingThere is a high chance of analyzing and taking decision for the inaccurate data.Time and money will be wasted if the decisions are taken for the inaccurate data.Decision making with Big Data requires a lot of talented people to work it in our favour. erroneous belief in one step would lead to iterating of entire process ma king it time consuming.In addition to that, there are incessantly cybersecurity take chances which can manipulate the decisions when it comes to data.Taking representative of the Amazon, it has been rightly using big data in all its benefits and has become the biggest ecommerce giant in the world. These are the perks of using big data analytics in the right way. Amazon is the perfect example to understand how big data can work in your favor and help you achieve the market that you are targeting. Therefore, taking the example of Amazon, it entered the Chinese market without any analysis of the data or without any association of the market. It failed miserably in the market and had to undergo losses. Few years later, it resolute to enter Indian market and be its biggest ecommerce retailer. Now, before accounting entry the Indian market, Amazon decided to analyze its mistakes that it made while get in the Chinese market. Amazon used the diagnostic analysis of the big data to unde rstand its failure in the Chinese market and was able to create the dashboard describing the factors that led to failure. Those factors weredid not get enough game from the customerscould not stand the local competition of Alibaba (local Chinese e-commerce)did not get enough support from the Chinese governmentAmazon did not only analyze the Chinese market, but it similarly undergoes descriptive, prescriptive and predictive analysis for the Indian market before entering it and created a well-versed dashboard.Thus, these three factors play an important for any company entering a foreign country. Here that is what Amazon did and I also as a decision maker would have done the same topic as analyzing these three things which made Amazon fail in Chinese market, can actually help it succeed in Indian market. Moreover, in addition to that, there are so many startups in India which call for a boost and needs investment unlike the case in China. So, Indian market has availability of low-c ost technical efficiency which helps in avoiding huge costs of outsourcing.Not only that, Indian consumers are always fascinated by these new changes and are always welcoming to more convenient options if available. So, choosing startups rather than outsourcing and making convenience of customer first precedency would help in Amazon succeeding the Indian market.Thus, from the example of Amazon, we can conclude that Big Data analytics help in making the process of decision-making smoother and more responsive. It provides a competitive edge by making the analyzing much easier and that too in a minimal time making the process very optimum.
civilised Liberties & Civil Rights1. The article in the outgrowth Amendment of the US musical composition that prohibits the establishment of religion by Congress. 1. The stop Exercise Clause is the accompanying clause with the Establishment Clause of the starting time Amendment to the linked States Constitution.2. The Fourth Amendment to the f either in States Constitution is the decompose of the Bill of Rights which guards against excessive searches and seizures, along with requiring any warrant to be judicially sancti unmatchedd and support by likely cause.3. The 5th Amendment affirms that a person fecal matter be tried for a serious federal crime only if he or she has been indicted (charged, accused of that crime) by a grand jury. No one may be subjected to double jeopardy that is, tried twice for the analogous crime. All persons argon protected against self-incrimination no person can be legally compelled to answer any question in any political proceeding if th at answer could lead to that persons prosecution. The 5th Amendments Due butt against Clause prohibits unfair, arbitrary actions by the Federal regimen.4. The one-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets ahead rights connect to criminal prosecutions. The controlling approach has applied the protections of this amendment to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.5. The Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights (ratified 1789) prohibiting the federal organisation from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishments, including torture.6. The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution to each one(prenominal) contain a Due Process Clause. Due surgical procedure deals with the validation of judge and thus the Due Process Clause acts as a safeguard from arbitrary denial of life , liberty, or prop by the Government outside the sanction of fairness7 . The 14th amendment is a in truth important amendment that defines what it means to be a US citizen and protects certain rights of the tribe. at that place are three important clauses in the 14th amendment Citizenship Clause the citizenship clause gives individual born in the United States, but especially at that time, African Americans the right to citizenship. Due Process Clause the due process clause protects the 1st amendment rights of the people and prevents those rights from being contractn a representation by any government without due process. equalize Protection Clause This part of the fourteenth amendment states that there may be no discrimination against them by the practice of law.8. The incorporation of the Bill of Rights (or incorporation for short) is the process by which American courts adjudge applied portions of the U.S. Bill of Rights to the states.9. Prior restraint (also referre d to as prior security review or pre- ordinaryation censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government, on conceptualization before the expression actually takes place. An alternative is to allow the expression to take place and to take appropriate action afterward, if the expression is found to deprave the law, regulations, or separate rules.10. symbolic pitch is a legal margin in United States law used to describe actions that purposefully and discernibly study a particular message or statement to those viewing it. Symbolic speech is recognized as being protected under the First Amendment as a form of speech, but this is non expressly scripted as such in the document.11. In United States criminal law, probable cause is the standard by which an officer or agent of the law has the grounds to make an arrest, to conduct a personal or position search, or to obtain a warrant for arrest, etc. when criminal charges are being considered.12. The exclusionary rule is a lega l principle in the United States, under constitutional law, which holds that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the suspects constitutional rights is sometimes inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law.13. Some of the things you can do in the real world you cannot do in school.14. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonpartisan non-profit organization whose stated kick is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this bucolic by the Constitution and laws of the United States. In the years following human being War I, America was gripped by the fear that the Communist Revolution that had interpret place in Russia would spread to the United States. As is often the courtship when fear outweighs rational debate, civil liberties paid the price. In November 1919 and January 1920, in what notoriously became known as the Palmer Raids, Attorney global Mitchell Palmer began rounding up and deporting s o-called radicals. Thousands of people were arrested without warrants and without regard to constitutional protections against unlawful search and seizure. Those arrested were brutally sueed and held in horrible conditions.15.A wharf owner sued the city of Baltimore for economic loss occasioned by the citys diversion of streams, which lowered the pissing level around his wharves. He claimed that the city took his property without just earnings in violation of the Fifth Amendment. Gideon is a edge facial expression in United States Supreme apostrophize history. In the case, the Supreme homage unanimously control that state courts are striked under the Fourteenth Amendment to allow for counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford to contribute their own attorneys, extending the identical fatality made on the federal government under the Sixth Amendment The Supreme woo decision in Miranda v. azimuth required (for the first time) that someone accused of a crime be informed of his or her constitutional rights prior to interrogation. This protected the rights of the accused, or the defendant, in two new ways1) It educated the person about germane(predicate) constitutional rights and 2) It inhibited law enforcement officials from infringing those rights by applying the Exclusionary Rule to any proof/incriminating statements the defendant made unless he intentionally waived his rights. State woos are held to the same standard as Federal mashs when evidence is obtained without the use of a search warrant, ensuring material obtained without a legitimate search warrant or probable cause cannot be used to prosecute a defendant in any court. This was an important practical application of the Bill of Rights to criminal procedure. Gitlow v. stark naked York was a decision by the United States Supreme Court distinct on June 8, 1925, which ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had extended the chance upon of certain limitations on federal government authority set forth in the First Amendmentspecifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the pressto the governments of the individual states.16. The U.S Constitution safeguards the rights of Americans to privacy and personal autonomy. Although the Constitution does not explicitly domiciliate for such rights, the U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted the Constitution protect these rights, specifically in the areas of marriage, procreation, abortion, private consensual homophile activity, and medical treatment. State and federal laws may limit some of these rights to privacy, as long as the restrictions meet tests that the Supreme Court has set forth, each involving a balancing of an individuals right to privacy against the states compelling interests. Such compelling interests include protecting earthly concern morality and the health of its citizens and improving the quality of life. In Griswold v. computed axial tomography, 381 U.S. 479 (1965), the State of Connecticut convicted two persons as accessories for giving a married couple discipline on and a prescription for a birth-control device. The U.S. Supreme Court upset(a) the convictions and found the Connecticut law to be unconstitutional because it violated a right to privacy in the marital relation.Civil Rights1. The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were important to the Civil Rights Movement.2. Its Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people inside its jurisdiction. This clause was the rear end for brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court decision which precipitated the dismantling of racial segregation in United States education, and for reed v. Reed (1971), where the Supreme Court struck down a law based on gender (with no rational relationship to a state objective) the first such application based on sex.3. Legislation frequently involv es making classifications that either advantage or outrage one group of persons, but not another. States allow 20-year-olds to drive, but fall apartt let 12-year-olds drive. Indigent single parents receive government financial aid that is denied to millionaires. Obviously, the Equal Protection Clause cannot mean that government is get to treat all persons exactly the sameonly, at most, that it is obligated to treat people the same if they are similarly circumstanced. Over recent decades, the Supreme Court has developed a three-tiered approach to analysis under the Equal Protection Clause.4.There were 3 thing said that day that would chage the way people looked at slavery -The court said that dread Scott had no right to sue because the framers of the Constitution (founding fathers) didnt intend for blacks to be case-hardened like citizens. Congress had no right/authority to take out a persons property. (Slaves often thought of as property) An if slaves were property the federal government could not restrict the slave master from carry an housing the on federal land that been off limits to slave owners. The second compromise was unconstitutional . The Plessy case does not impact society . It was disordered by Brown vs. Board of education in 1954. However, as a contributor commenting on this post, I must say that it led to win dispute over civil rights which eventually led to the Supreme Court reconsidering their decision in Brown v. Board of education and eventually overturning it. Brown v. Board of Education was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate human race schools for black and white students unconstitutional.U.S. was an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the busing of students to promote integration in public schools. After a first trial going to the Board of Education, the Court held that busing was an appropriate reanimate for the problem of racial imbalan ce in schools, even when the imbalance resulted from the natural selection of students based on geographic proximity to the school rather than from flip over assignment based on race.5. They deliberated for a year, at which point they issued a second ruling, Brown II, which avoided specifying what sort of racial balance might establish compliance. Brown II stated that desegregation should be carried out with all deliberate speed.6. De jure (Latin for from the law) segregation is the separation of people on the basis of race as required by by law. For example, after the Civil War and the ending of slavery by the 13th Amendment to the Constitution (1865), the governments of the agent slave states found new ways to discriminate against black Americans.They enacted laws to require separate public facilities for blacks and whites. Blacks were required, for example, to attend separate schools, to use separate public rest rooms, and to use separate public drinking fountains. The separa te facilities for blacks were divinatory to be equal to the facilities provided for whites. This separate but equal doctrine was endorsed by the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). In reality, however, the facilities for black people were rarely, if ever, equal in quality to those provided for whites.Racial separation that exists as a matter of custom rather than as a legal requirement is known as de facto (Latin for in fact) segregation. For example, one neighborhood may include only white families, and another nearby neighborhood may include only black families. However, this racial segregation may induct developed informally in response to social and economic factors, not as a requirement of the law. De jure segregation has been declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. In Brown v. Board of Education (1954) the Court ruled against de jure racial segregation in public schools. In subsequent cases the Court outlawed racial discrimination in other areas of public life. In 1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights flake, which outlawed de jure segregation.7. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 enacted July 2, 1964 is a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and also women. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the work and by facilities that served the general public known as public accommodations.8. The 1965 voting Rights Act was a natural follow on to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Ironically, the 1964 Act had resulted in an outbreak of violence in the South. White racists had launched a rill against the success that Martin Luther King had had in getting African Americans to register to vote. The violence reminded Johnson that more was needed if the civil rights issue was to be suitably reduced.9. The 24th Amendment prohibits both Congress and the s tates from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964.10. White primaries were primary elections in the Southern States of the United States of America in which any non-White voter was prohibited from participating.11. Shaw v. Reno was a United States Supreme Court case argued on April 20, 1993. The ruling was significant in the area of redistricting and racial gerrymandering. The court ruled in a 5-4 decision that redistricting based on race must be held to a standard of strict examination under the equal protection clause. On the other hand, bodies doing redistricting must be conscious of race to the extent that they must ensure compliance with the select Rights Act. The redistricting that occurred after the 2000 census was the first nationwide redistricting to apply the results of Shaw v. Reno.12. Ko rematsu v. United States was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive vow 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II heedless of citizenship.In a 6-3 decision, the Court sided with the government, ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional. Six of eight-spot Roosevelt nominees sided with Roosevelt. The lone Republican nominee, Owen Roberts dissented. The opinion, written by Supreme Court justice Hugo Black, held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Fred Korematsus individual rights, and the rights of Americans of Japanese descent. (The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, adding, The provisions of other orders requiring persons of Japanese etymologizing to report to assembly centers and providing for the detention of such persons in assembly and move centers were separate, and their validity is not in issue in this proceeding.) During t he case, Solicitor General Charles Fahy is alleged to have suppressed evidence by keeping from the Court a report from the Office of Naval Intelligence indicating that there was no evidence that Japanese Americans were acting as spies or sending signals to enemy submarines.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Paternalism in the Medical Profession Philosophy 235 EC bio checkup examination checkup Ethics The precisely appropriate and realistic flummox of the Dr.? diligent family is paternalism. Doctors ar the medical experts most endurings prognosis little, if whatsoever, reliable medical acquaintance implicit trust in ones mendelevium is intrinsic to the healing process and remediates generate the righteousness for our health and indeed have the duty to make every(prenominal) the important medical closes. Critically respect that claim. The issue of doctor patient role kindreds has become to a great extent and more plethoric in our world today.It is hard to draw a clear parentage in deciding what the appropriate utilisations are of twain the patient and the medical professional. The claim that the paternalistic forge is the appropriate and most realistic model lead be argued in this paper. This model states that the doctor is the one in complete envision, m aking all closings on behalf of the patient, and the patient grants the doctor this debt instrument, obeying severally ensnares. In this model, patients act as children, who are ignorant and unknowledgeable, and doctors act as parents, not solitary(prenominal) guiding the child in the right direction, only if alike, actually telling them what to do.Should doctors really hold complete certificate of indebtedness for our health? Should they be the ones to make all the important medical decisions with disclose patients having either state? This model will be argued in this paper in do to critically assess whether it should be dominant in our present society. The traditionalistic cod held by doctors themselves was that the physician is the captain of the ship, and that the patient has to follow orders. This sensible horizon has only been strongly believed since the 19th and 20th century, when medical professionals were granted virtually complete control over all decisi on making by their patients.Before that time, going to see a doctor was perceived as a last resort, and many a(prenominal) would ignore their doctors advice altogether. Over time, this view has shifted and society began to believe that physicians knew best, and in that respectfore had not only the right plainly also the duty to make the decision. Today, less and less citizens are inveterate to agree with this point of view, and instead former(a) doctor patient relationship models have emerged and been identified by Robert Veatch the engineering model, the priestly model, the collegial, and the contractual model.The tierce alternative models to the priestly (paternalistic) model have emerged from a more coeval perspective. The engineering model states that the relationship betwixt the 2 parties would be vigour more than the doctor simply presenting the patient with the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment excerptions. Any decision as to which route to larn is left entirely up to the patient. As the textbook explains, the doctor is nothing more than an applied scientist, or a plumber without any moral integrity, since ethics and value do not come into play in this relationship.Although I do not entirely agree with this model, the responsibility is lifted off of the physician, and the patient is minded(p) freedom to decide. This would follow the argument of self-determination, as said by Dr. Ornstein. This is the impression that all people who are competent should be the ones in control of determining their get fate. Society has not always believed or relied on medical professionals. In fact until well into the nineteenth century, the physician was seen as a figure of last resort. They were deemed useless and even harmful.With this in mind, I wonder why in our day and age, we would rely even more on physicians than we did in the past? Today, we have the privilege of finding out almost anything we need to know within minutes via the Internet, and that is why sometimes, it is the patient that knows more than his own doctor. It is important that patients assume some level of responsibility for their own health, instead of relying on doctors, and the engineering model would display that typecast of behavior. That is another reason why I oppose the claim that paternalism is the ensample relationship between doctor and patient.Another alternative model identified by Robert Veatch, is the collegial model. This theory emphasizes that some(prenominal) parties are connected through park goals and interests, and that each acts as an independent equal. This model would hint that the parties work together, and in that respectfore the responsibility is divided equally amongst the patient and physician. There is collaboration here, savoury in activities, which are satisfying to both, and demonstrating an adult-adult relationship, because no one party has greater control over the other.This model goes hand in hand with the union model, which expresses that health carry on professionals and their patients act as partners or colleagues in the wanting of the contributiond value of health. There is mutual participation in this model, which demonstrates that, hostile the paternalistic model, the patient can process come to a medical decision. This model stresses, the patient uses expert help to realize his ends. This expert help can come in many forms, and as I have previously mentioned, today society is exposed to numerous modes of gathering any type of information that is of interest.It is of course obvious that the physician has a stronger medical background and is more competent in that field, but that does not abate the participation or contribution of the patient. With that world said, it is my opinion that the paternalistic model has clearly outgrown our culture, when in that respect are models such as the coalition or collegial model, which are more in sync with our world today. Finally, the tierc e alternative to the paternalistic model is the contractual model.This model is similar to paternalism, in that it questions the assumptions of equality, hitherto it differs in that there is a contract between both parties, leaving each with their own dignity and moral authority. What is crucial just about this model is that it does not neglect the fact that there is an obvious remainder in the stop of knowledge between the patient and the physician. Instead of stress on that discrepancy, the model concentrates on the agreement between the two parties to change goods and services and the enforcement of that by government sanctions.In other words, this model compromises between partnership and the reality of medical care, and according to Veatch, is the only realistic way to share all responsibility, while protecting various parties in health care. For example, both parties are freely entering this contract, and therefore are both effrontery the right to leave it, given over proper notice. However, while partaking in the contract, there are duties and obligations of each, which may neglect virtues of benevolence, care and compassion, which we do see dysphoric in other models.Leaving aside the three alternatives to the paternalistic model, there are several other arguments, which come to surface, when critically assessing the above-mentioned claim. The first is that doctors mustiness(prenominal) act like parents because patients know untold less than doctors do. This emphasizes the idea that the doctor patient relationship should be one of paternalism. This argument make fulls into account two different prototypes. The first is the parent-infant relationship, where the parent is the doctor, taking on an active role and the infant is the patient, taking on a passive role.In this case the patient is extremely dependent on the medical professional. The second is the parent-adolescent child relationship, where the physician guides the patient in the r ight direction, and the patient co-operates to the degree of obeying. Both suggest that the patient has no responsibility, and that the duty and obligation of all decisions rest on the shoulders of the physician. This proposes that patients are ignorant and unknowledgeable and given the opportunity to make their own decision, they would not be able to.It is likely that doctors know more than the second-rate member of society, however, this is not to say that they are infallible, mistakes can happen. As prof Ornstein has stated, we cannot choose our fathers, but we can choose our doctors, and in my opinion there is no connection where the two should be related. If a patient feels they should seek out a second, third or poop opinion, that is their own right. irrelevant the ability to seek out a second, third or fourth father. We do not have this option.It is possible and even probable that doctors will differ in their views, and each may guide their patient quite a little a differ ent path. Although a relationship between a physician and a patient should be based on a degree of trust and loyalty, if there is any sort of uncertainty, patients should not feel the atmospheric pressure of following a path they do not believe in. getting another opinion is not disloyal or disrespectful it is a patients right. Additionally, today more patients recognize that it is unfair for doctors to take complete responsibility for our welfare, as we are exposed to so much free medical information.It is my opinion that it is the patients duty to also act responsible for his or her own welfare. Another argument that I have come across to oppose this claim is that doctors may be experts in medical matters but there may be other factors to take into account, such as ethical issues, when making a decision. distributively doctor has taken an oath, to save lives. This is their main concern, and their main goal for each patient. One must wonder, whether or not this is always ethical . As professor Ornstein has suggested, do we save someone who as a result must live the rest of his or her life in agonizing injure?Or do we relieve them of that pain, and simply allow them to pass away? This is an ethical issue where many doctors may have opposing points of view, and may decide that their job would be to save the patient. That would be a paternalistic instinct however medical decisions should not be purely medical all the time. There are always other factors to consider such as the medical conditions of the patient, their preferences, the quality of life and the socio economic conditions. Each, of course, is given a weight dependent on the specifics and circumstances of the case.In the case of a patient who is experiencing excruciating pain, the doctor may come to the conclusion that the best option would be to remedy that pain with medication. It is important to note, that this paternalistic act is ignoring all ethical issues and only taking medicine into accou nt. Opposing this notion would be to consider how this medication might cloud the patients judgment, or recognizing the patients preferences prior to formulating a medical decision. Doctors might be experts in medical matters, but the other factors, which are necessary to take into consideration, deem the paternalistic view inadequate.A final argument against the paternalistic view is that physician-patient interactions are talkss. Viewing the interactions as negotiations, is in itself opposing paternalism because the patient is given some level of autonomy to take part in the decision making process. The goal is to reach a mutual agreement. In order to do so, there are certain steps that must be followed. Firstly, the negotiation should involve adequate disclosures by both parties. This is necessary, so that values and objectives are clear, and a fair negotiation can take place. Secondly, the negotiation should be voluntary, meaning uncoerced.Neither party should feel threatened w hile entering into the negotiation process. And finally, the solution should be one of mutual acceptance. Of course there are occasions where negotiation is not possible, and that would be for example in the case of an emergency, when the physician needs to save the patient without negotiating beforehand. In that case, the medical professional may act in a paternalistic way, however if there is a competent patient, negotiation is possible and can a good deal be characterized in terms of any of the above-mentioned models (parent-child, friends, partners, etc. ).The aspect that the relationship is seen as a negotiation counters the paternalistic view, in that the patient is given choice. If the patient chooses to give up his autonomy, and lay his destiny in the hands of his physician, that is his preference, unlike the paternalistic model, where that is not a choice, but the only way. The paternalistic model is not the only realistic relationship between doctor and patient. As a norm ative model, paternalism tends to concentrate on care rather than respect, patients needs rather than their rights, and physicians discretion rather than patients autonomy or self determination. As I have mentioned previously, there are many other factors that must always be taken into consideration when traffic with a patient. Autonomy, self-determination, and respect, are surely incredibly important when dealing with a patient, and paternalism ignores those factors. The above-mentioned arguments, and alternative relationship models, clearly oppose the claim that paternalism is the only appropriate relationship. As I had asked the questions Should doctors really hold complete responsibility for our health?Should they be the ones to make all the important medical decisions without patients having any say? I believe the answer to both questions is quite clear, that the responsibility should be shared, and the patient, if capable, should take part in the decision making process. That being said, paternalism is not the most appropriate model and no one relationship trumps another. Instead, all must be taken into account depending on circumstance.
hold BackgroundMobile Technology is most authoritative in the world and current generation. We can give updated information using roving devices. such device can be used for personal and business transactions. Moreover, mobile devices functionality has evolved tremendously. Nowadays, it can be used for a variety of purposes comparable to descend places much like a GPS, to fill barcodes, to play games, to browse the Internet, to have sex weather reports, to vote, and so much more. Significantly the most important uses be the voice calls, video calls and Short Messaging System (SMS). Currently respective(a) models of mobile phones have come out in the market and all(prenominal) one having special advantages over the others. The SMS or message facility is important in the mobile device. It allows the sender to send messages from one mobile to other mobiles device.Most business establishments advertise through print media like the newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, brochures , and so much more. They also make use of the radio to promote their yield and benefits. Furthermore, a lot business establishments assoil market survey like allowing consumer to choose which harvest-tide they like best or selecting the best brands and so on. For example, Nawras Telecommunication is one of the best communications providers in Oman. It makes the communication service precise convenient to the customers. During festival or holiday, Nawras send bulk messages to its customers communicate them of promotions. Using this marketing strategy, customers will be aware of exciting promos and discounts.The backbone of any business is advertising. Companies have used mobile technology to ride to customers and sell their yields and services. With this technology, companies can r separately customer base very casual and quickly, thus, improving the business.Problem StatementAlthough print media is effective in denote products, the problem lies on the cost. It is very ex pensive to advertise using this medium. When businesses conduct market survey, they usually do it manually. Example, they visit households randomly and ask them questions pertaining to their product and services or they gave out questionnaires to people on the streets. As seen, it is very time and effort consuming.Project ObjectivesThe objective of this chore is to design and execute a Mobile Marketing System. It specifically seeks to 1. Lessen the cost in advertising 2. Lessen time and effort in conducting market look for or study 3. Use the mobile phone as a marketing strategy to advertise and conduct market study and 4. bearing, jump and test a Mobile Marketing System.CHEPTER 23.1 exploreResearch Part is a step of scientific approach and can cite as practice based research. How to collect the information, investigate for new projection and understand the previous corpse and study the various information from books stuff and nonsense and websites. The main aim of the res earch is using mobile technology to get to customers and sell their products and services . Before starting this project i read about companies and how to do promotion for electronic products Without the accept to buy advertisement may cost many amounts. And read the way advertising through mobile phones So you want to snap the project2.2 PROJECT plan2.3 Analysis and DesignANALYSISSystems analysis is the study of sets of interacting entities, including computer governing bodys analysis. This atom will analyze the functionality the software and what programming language will it be implemented. The design section will contain screen layouts as puff up as the core design of the software and the way it will be implemented..DESIGNThe researcher will analyze and design the database based on the clients requirement. Modeling tools will be used to draw cases and data flows. Design phase also includes the structure of our database. Also will start by designing the site according to our analysis. Then will create the database depending on the previous design. Then will make a connection mingled with the application itself and the database. The detailed design are at the stage of detailed design, working on the computer begins in earnest. At this stage, the design of the system becomes more organized. Are drawn inputs, outputs, and processing specifications is in the details.2.4 Implementation and examenAfter testing is completed, the system will be implemented in the client side. Testing is most important in system development. We need to test the system in all levels. First, it will be tried and true using unit testing which uses column level test. In this project, severally and every column should be validated. Unit is the smallest possible testable software component. This project will start with unit testing by testing each module of the project. Second, stress testing will be performed. It is done when a system is tested with a load that causes it to allo cate its resources for develop the product in maximum amounts, this is called stress testing. For example, in this project, bulk messages will be sent and received to and from customers and stress testing will be performed to nab the efficiency of the system. It is expected that delays will happen.2.5 Critical military ratingIt is necessary to gauge the system after design, development and testing the system for validation purposes. Evaluation of the new system depends on the design, development and test team and users of the project. It traps succeeding(a) error and defines future enhancements as recommended by the user. User evaluation is of select importance because he/she is the one who will be using the system every day, so their approval must be sought.
Salome turns aside to be an evil and very(prenominal) h bebrained character she gets pleasure by beheading people. In this poem it turns out that Salome has removed few other heads previously and she would doubtlessly do it again. She does not yet know whos head it is that is next to her, but it regardms like that she does not care at on the whole. This makes her sound like a whore. As the maidservant walks in this makes her feel more comfortable and part for nigh reason. Hitcher The man makems really stressed and tired, and when he receives the phone resound from his boss that is his final straw.He seems very jealous of the hitcher this is because he is compliwork forcetary of stress and is a free spirit. He seems very frustrated. The reality He Killed This poem is very interesting. It turns out that they dont want to consume for each one other but because they are at war with each others country. One of them says youd treat if met where whatever kick downstairs is or help to half-a-crown. He is saying if I met you in any other circumstances I would take you to a bar and buy you a pint. My Last Duchess She is very very jealous, in fact she is so jealous that she wants to poison he and watch he die very slowly.She makes the poison sound like something that is rich and luxurious. Salome There is some beginning rhyme on by-line 18-19 where the sound of maids clanging makes Salome happy. passim the poem the tone of it makes the poem sound like a teen girl who is spoiled and self-indulgent. In this poem there are sooner a few clichi s e. g. and aint life a bitch. Hitcher In this poem the first stanza has some typical rhymes which controls the poem together tired, exculpated, hired. ordure you see the effect of this? He is tired and then his boss threatens to fire him then he hires a Vauxhall Astra.A mess hall of clichi s are used in this poems here are some examples The truth he said was blowin in the wind, or around the next bend. hed sa id he liked the breeze to run its fingers/ finished his hair. The Man He Killed There are colloquialisms such as off-hand like which provide an earthy realism along with the unskilful sounding meter. The Laboratory This poem uses consolation irony. It also uses some beginning rhyme here is an example Grind away, moisten and mash up thy scatter and here is another example Brand, burn up, bite into its grace-.It also has some ambiguity in it here is an example If it attenuates her, beside, can it ever hurt me? . Salome The first verse describes how she is trying to figure out whose head is on the pillow next to here. The second verse describes how she started to feel less katzenjammer when the maid rough in her breakfast. The third verse discusses how she is trying to resolve the life of the booze and the fags and the sex. Then she decides to turf out the confrere from her bed. HitcherThis poem has five stanzas and a regular five line shape with the third line being the longes t in all of them. If you look at each third line you will see some sort of a pattern occurring. The shape of the stanza is very interesting. The Man He Killed This poem has a simple but formal expression of five short stanzas all rhyming ABAB. The last tow stanzas move the men that they could be friends if they met in any other situation. Stanzas both and three set out the qualifying circumstances that change everything for the mens fate they are soldiers in opposing armies and therefore enemies.The lab The title in this poem gives us a big cue on where the scene takes place. The speaker is a woman she takes a lot of pleasure watching the procedure. In the second verse we cab see why the woman wanted revenge, she wanted revenge because the speaker has been betrayed by her lover. In verse three she watches the apothecary at work and is hypnotised by what he is doing. She is in no hurry. She takes pleasure in the preparation. This is rectify than dancing in the kings palace.
Monday, February 25, 2019
I dont know how it got so late, Elena utter for the ternary time as they hurried cut the path by the quad. clean and Meredith are probably worried ab egress me.They know youre with me, Damon said, pacing on unruffled beside her.I dont call up theyl find that comforting, Elena said, and bit her tongue as Damon shot her an expressive look.After al the time weve spent cont termination side by side, they stil dont trust me? he said silkily. Id be rottenly hurt. If I cared what they estimate.I dont mean that they think youd hurt me, Elena said.Not anymore. Or that you wouldnt protect me. I guess they worry that you might might give way a channelisespring at me. Or something.Damon stopped and looked at her. then(prenominal) he picked up her hand and held it, running cardinal finger down the inside of her arm, tracing the vein that led from Elenas wrist to her elbow. And what do you think? he asked, smiling gently.Elena snatched her hand back, glaring at him. Clearly they th row off a point, she said. Knock it off. Just friends, remember?Sighing amplely, Damon started go again, and Elena hurried to magnetize up.Im glad you decided to come to the party with me, she said even uptual y. Itl be pleasure. Damon shot her a velvet-black glance through his lashes still said nonhing.It was incessantly fun to be with Damon, Elena thought, listening to the clicking of her own heels and watching her shadow commence and disappear as they walked beneath the streetlights. Or at least, it was always fun when Damon was in a good mood and nonhing was exhausting to kil them, twain circumstances she wished coincided more often.Stefan, sweet, darling Stefan, was the love of her life.She had no doubts ab stunned that. but now Damon made her aroma breathless and excited, swept up in something larger than herself. Damon made her feel like she was special.And he was more easygoing than chronic tonight. After Matt left, theyd searched the library some more, and then Damon treated her to chips and carbonated water in the basement vending-machine room. They sat at one of the teeny tables and talked and laughed. It wasnt anything get a line or elegant, nothing like the parties hed escorted her to in the Dark Dimension, but it was prospering and fun, and when she looked at her phone, she was startled to see that more than an hour had passed.And now Damon even volunteered to come to a col ege keg party. Maybe he was trying to get along with her friends. Maybe they could real y be friends, erstwhile things somehow worked out between Stefan and him.Elena had reached this point in her musings when she suddenly got the straightforward creepy-crawly feeling that she was being watched. The little hairs on the back of her farawaye s to a faultd up.Damon, she said softly. Theres someone watching us.Damons pupils dilated as he sniffed the air. Elena could tel that he was direct out questing tendrils of Power, searching for an answering surge, for someone focusing on them.Nothing, he said after a moment. He tucked his hand infra her arm, pul ing her nastyr. It could just be your imagination, princess, but wel be careful. The leather of Damons jacket was gleam against Elenas side, and she held tightly to him as they stepped out into the road that divided the campus.Just crossways from them, a car that had been idling at the curb gunned its engine. Its headlights blazed on, blinding Elena. Damons armor locked slightly her waist, squeezing the breath out of her.The cars tires squealed and it shot toward them. Elena panicked oh God, oh God, she thought serve uplessly and froze. Then she was sailing through the air, Damon holding her so tightly that it hurt.When they hit the grass on the other side of the road, Damon paused for a moment, adjusting his empale on Elena, and Elena peered back at the car, which had passed where they were standing a moment in the first place and skidded back most in a U-turn. She couldn t make out anything, not what kind of car it was nor anything about the driver buns the bright lights, it was just a hulking dark hammer.A hulking dark shape that was veering onto the grass and coming back after them. Damon swore and yanked her onward, running instead than flying now, Elenas feet barely touching the ground. Her heart was pounding. She could tel Damon was hampered from using his ful speed by keeping Elena close. They dodged around the corner of a building and leaned against its wal , surrounded by bushes.The car hurtled by, then turned, its wheels leaving long skid marks, and lumbered back to the road.We broken him, Elena whispered, panting.Annoy anyone lately, princess? Damon asked, his look sharp.I should be asking you that, Elena retorted. Then she intent her arms around herself. She was so cold suddenly. Do you think it could direct been because of the Vitale Society? she asked, her voice quavering.Something about them and my parents?We dont know who or wh at could deplete been on the other side of that trapdoor, Damon replied somberly. Or maybe MattNot Matt, Elena said firmly. Matt would never hurt me. Damon nodded. Thats true. Hes ridiculously honorable, your Matt. He gave her a little wry sideways smile. And he loves you. Everyone loves you, Elena. He shrugged out of his jacket and clad it over her shoulders.One things certain, though. If the driver of that car thought I was man before, he knows differently now. Elena pul ed the jacket more tightly around herself. You saved me, she said in a tiny voice. Thank you. Damons eye were soft as he put his arms around her.I wil always save you, Elena, he promised. Dont you know that by now? His pupils dilated, and he pul ed her closer. I cant lose you, he murmured.Elena felt up like she was fal ing. The existence was being swal owed up in Damons midnight eyes, and she was being drawn along with it, into the darkness. A tiny part of her said no, but despite it she leaned toward him and met his verbalize with hers.Stefan tapped his fingers against the wal shadow him, looked around at al the people jammed too close together talking, laughing, arguing, drinking, dancing. His skin was crawling with anxiety. Where was she? Matt said hed seen her at the library more than an hour ago, that she had been planning on coming to the party then. fashioning up his mind, Stefan began to push his way toward the exit. Maybe Elena didnt want him in encounter with her right now, but people were dying and disappearing. It would be worth it to have her angry with him, as long as he knew that she was okay.He passed Meredith, deep in conversation with her friend, and said, Im going to find Elena. He had the quick belief of her faltering, starting to reach out a hand to stop him, but he left her behind. He pushed open the door and stepped out into the nerveless night air. Campus security was stil by the door checking IDs, but they let him pass without comment, solely interested in people trying to come into the party.Outside, the twist was rushing through the trees overhead and a crescent moon rode risque and white above the buildings around him. Stefan sent his Power out around him, feeling for the distinct traces of Elena.He couldnt sense anything, not yet. There were too many people too close together here, and Stefan could only feel the tangled traces of thousands of humans, their emotions and life force mixing together in one great underlying buzz from which it was impossible for him, at this surpass, to pick out any particular individual, even one as singular as Elena.If he had fed on human blood recently, it would have been easier. Stefan couldnt help thinking longingly of the way that Power had surged through him when he drank regularly from his friends. But that was when Fel s Church needed his best defense against the kitsune. He wouldnt drink human blood just for pleasure or convenience.Stefan started walking quickly across the quad, stil sendi ng out questing fingers of Power around and in front of himself. If he couldnt locate Elena that way, he would head for where she was last seen. He hoped that, as he got closer to the library, his Power would pick up some top of her.His whole body was thrumming anxiously. What if Elena had been attacked, what if she mysteriously vanished and never returned, leaving him with this strange distance as their last memory of each other? Stefan walked faster.He was midway to the library when the distinctive sense of Elena hit him like a punch. someplace nearby.He scanned left and right and then he saw her. A terrible pain shot through his chest, as if he could veridical y feel his heart breaking. She was kissing Damon. They were half hidden in the shadows, but their light skin and Elenas blond hair shone. They were focused only on each other, so much so that, despite his Power, Damon wasnt conscious(predicate) of Stefans presence, not even when he walked right up to them.Is this why y ou valued to take some time apart, Elena? Stefan asked, his voice sounding hol ow and distant. Final y noticing him, they broke away from each other, Elenas face pale with shock.Stefan, she said. Please, Stefan, no, its not what it looks like. She reached out a hand toward him, then drew it back uncertainly.Everything seemed so far away to Stefan he was aware that he was shaking, his mouth was dry, but it felt almost as if he was watching someone else in pain. I cant do this, he said. Not again. If I fight for you, Il just end up destroying us al . Just like with Katherine. Elena was shaking her head back and forth, her hands stretched out toward him imploringly again. Please, Stefan, she said.I cant, Stefan said again, endorse away, his voice thin and desperate.Then, for the first time, he looked at Damon, and a redhot temper slammed into him, overriding the numb distance instantly. Al you do is take, Stefan told him bitterly. This is the last time. Were not brothers anymore. Da mons face opened for a split second in dismay, his eyes widening, as if he was about to speak, and then he hardened again, his mouth twisting scornful y, and he jerked his head at Stefan. Very well, that question indicated, then get lost.Stefan stumbled backward, and then he turned and ran, moving with al the supernatural grace and speed at his command, leaving them far behind even as Elena screamed, Stefan
The Philippine Telecommunications Industry remains to be one of the nigh robust and fastest growing industries in the Philippines. This report volition atom on the pre move state of the elecommunications industry, the regulatory environment, the broadband landscape painting, broadband technologies, and broadband equipment suppliers and investment opportunities. The Philippine telecommunication sector is estimated to have reached USD4. 0 million in annual service provider revenues by end 2009. appendage in the next five years, however, is projected to experience a late down due to the increasing saturation in the industrys two main incisions cellular officious and inflexible line.This growth is estimated o be at a compounded annual growth set up (CAGR) in revenues of about 8% over the next five years, compared to a CAGR of 11% in the last five. Aside from cellular fluid and dogged line, the other segments of the telecommunication sector are on communicate and broadband . For purposes of this report, it will touch briefly on cellular mobile, fixed line and broadcast segments but focus will be on the broadband segment which holds the most promise in regard to growth opportunities given that the cellular mobile and fixed line segments have already reached its saturation argue and is expected to achieve flat or negative growth for 2009.The prevailing telcos are PLDT, reality Telecom, Bayantel, and Digitel. Liberty Telecom is a previously soundless player that is expected to play a bigger role in the industry beginning with 2010. Liberty Telecom recently attracted attention when San Miguel Corporation, the Philippines largest diet and beverage conglomerate, acquired a 32. 7% stake in the previously indolent telecom keep company. Liberty Telecom had previously been under corporate renewal after trading of its stock was suspended in 2005 due to spendthrift volatility.San Miguel recently entered the telecommunication industry by leavening its whol ly-owned subsidiary Vega Telecom, Inc. The company later partnered with Qatar Telecom (QTel) in drawing up plans for re-establishing the market forepart of Liberty Telecom. The Philippine Telecommunications Report 2010 Page 2 Overview of industry landscape and key players Fixed Line Prior to 1993, Philippine Long space Telephone Company (PLDT) had been and continues to be the dominant carrier, being the first to establish a fixed line telecommunications infrastructure nationwide.Fol belittleding the telecommunications liberalization in 1993, coupled with the introduction of the Service Area Scheme (SAS), the competitive environment drastically changed with the entry of 10 new entrants that resulted in lower tariffs and modify fixed line penetration. However as of 2008, relative to the SAS, only 50%i of the fixed line capacity has been utilized with only 3. 9 million fixed line subscribers, or a low fixed line penetration rate of only 4. 32%. i The low fixed line penetration rate i s due mainly to the cellular mobile segment having overtaken the fixed line segment on sum up of faster roll-out and deployment of cellular mobile infrastructure. There are approximately 7. 45 million installed and 4. 89 million subscribed land lines as of 2008iii.Filipinos were mobile phone subscribers. The phenomenal growth was attributed to the popularity of SMS or Text Messaging with a little over 300 million text messages being sent daily as well as the availability of cheaper handsets brought about by the introduction of pre-paid services and over the air loading (electronic loads). The cellular mobile segment has been dominated by three (3) large telcos, namely Globe Telecom, Smart Communications and Sun Cellular with Globe Telecom pioneering the GSM weapons platform followed by Smart Communications and later Sun Cellular.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
Are knowledge and theology in affair? Indeed,a encroach does exist in the midst of cognizance and worship notwithstanding the conflict is ground on the deficiency of acceptance and vast mis imaginationions which members of either perspective be unwilling to let go of. The conflict between acquirement and clean-livingity exists because in that location is a lack of congruence between the results achieved through scientific discovery and the touch sensations required by a devotion to follow. This has pass along to the formation of deuce extremes i. e. either accept faith and the doctrines required by faith to be observed or accept the cerebral methodologies of intelligence.In an member published by The Atlantic, the author is of the opinion that solving the soak that creates the conflict between intuition and spectral belief is of utmost importance for the rate of flow generation. This is because of the reason that these two schools of thought atomic numb er 18 the most influential forces and guide the elbow room we live our lives (Alfred). Science and faith since their inception deal been in a state of continuous developing. However this development has been in the inverse direction i. e. nitially science studied the literature provided by worship in time with the development of scientific look into, reliable phantasmal concepts remained unproven because they were con positioningred Abstract by science. This has led to wad accepting nonpareil side to be true(a) and the another(prenominal) false (Alfred). There is a conflict between science and worship however this is because of the fact that bulk are hesitant to knowledge both and stick to one side. This has led to the permanent housing of misconceptions in the minds of stack and is adding fuel to the fire i. e. increasing the conflict between the two ways of life.The major reason tramp the conflict between science and religion is the lack of acceptance of conclusi ons reached by either science or religion regarding a extra matter. If science put more infirm on the topic under discussion, religious scholars would deny those facts ground on the grounds that the research is blasphemous and contradicts basic religious principles. An word by the Times magazine states the Christian Church and other religions including Islam focus on key aspects of human creation such as the possession of a soul by every human be or the miracles performed by saints and Men of God.Science however focuses on new ways of quantifying and amount human evolution both the concepts create a conflict (Dan, 2006). Science has been able to prove the physical creation of emotions such as passion, displeasure by locating it in antithetical parts of the brain. This contradicts with the principle followed by most religions regarding the presence of a soul in every human and how that soul is free from bodily functions etc.However acceptance of this is denied by religious scholars based on the grounds that the concept of the Afterlife is fundamental to most religions and the concept of the soul is greatly in congruence with the Afterlife (Dan, 2006). Scientific research should not be viewed as a threat to the fundamentals of a religion earlier the studies should be observed as being insightful i. e. the research further clarifies religious concepts rather than denouncing them. There are certain driving factors that govern the introduction and acceptance of the conflict between science and religion.Upbringing, Education and Social bearing are some of the factors that lead to people in both the scientific and religious communities to accept that in that location therefore is a faulting between science and religion. In an oblige by Elaine Howard of Rice University and Jerry Z. Park of Baylor University, they provided the results of a study they carried out which involved the woof of 21 Ameri groundwork scientists who were considered to be among the elite of the time. They studied their attitude towards religion and concluded that all scientists i. e. hether a naturalist or social scientist, have different levels of acceptance towards the conflict that exists between science and religion. The acceptance is affected by their culture and extent of religious practice (Ecklund& Park, 2009). Since everyone needs something to believe in, scientists who do not belong to a strict religious background readily accept the conflict since they have devoted their life to one particular proposition school of thought. This sensing is formed after extensive research based on rational thinking and seeking proof of everything which makes scientists so unbelieving almost religious beliefs.Among scientists however there is a lack of acceptance towards a religion correct if he/she is a believer. This is because of the perceived impel they would receive if their peers in the scientific community were to discover this fact (Elaine, 2010). The solely way to resolve the conflict is to accept religious diversity as well as the free discussion of scientific concepts without being judged as being blasphemous. It is through this open discussion that the mis sagacitys that exist between scholars of both extremes be realizeed.The ways the scientific concepts are taught in schools are one of the major causes of the conflict. Since the teachers do not have clear knowledge and mind of the scientific concepts, they pass on inadequate information to the students att finish. In an condition named First Year College Students Conflict with Religion and Science issued by the tabun State University, the author tells us that it is in the human nature to perceive oneself to be check than the rest. The general public tends to interpret and create their declare perceptions regarding scientific concepts and religious beliefs.The self-interpretations lead to misconceptions which are major cause of the rift that exists between scienc e and religion (Martin, 2008). The schools and teachers indoors those schools teach in a manner that fixes and restricts the brain of the student to think beyond what is thought. The rigid concepts suffer permanent with the passage of time which leads to the rejection of anything other than the closely held concepts. Science and religion develop over time, sometimes even complimenting each other. If a clear understanding of the advancements would not be obtained, there would ever be path for misinterpretations.Therefore to remove the conflict at an elementary stage, teachers should encourage students to interpret scientific research however they should know what is right and what is not in straddle to correct the misconceptions when they arise. An Evangelist is a person who preaches faith based on his or her own perception about the beliefs fundamental to the faith. Christian evangelists have always been skeptical towards scientific concepts as well as theological theories abou t the creation of the world. Amos Yong carried out an analysis of various literary whole kit and caboodle related to the explanation of the conflict paradigm between science and religion.The findings were summarized in the article named Science and Religion Introducing the Issues, Entering the Debates A review see and focused primarily on discovering ways to dress the methods of the church with scientific methodologies (Yong, 2011). The study identified various conceptual frameworks that could be follow which would align the thought process of the evangelist with scientific methodologies. Other measures that could be adopted include targeting the people lower in the hierarchy at the church. These people could be taught the concepts of science and how science can wear out explain religion (Yong, 2011).The only way to resolve the conflict that exists for evangelists is to align their religious beliefs with rational scientific methods. Since an evangelist is a strict believer in faith, the beliefs would always be fundamental however break-dance scientific knowledge can help bridge the differences. Science is based on methods and the rationale behind every phenomenon. Religion however on the other hand requires the believer to keep faith in the fundamental principles. Both present a different picture of the same thing and it is this difference in perception that has developed a conflict between science and religion.Science and Religion are two sides of the same coin. These two schools of thoughts add to each other rather than diverging. Religious concepts such as morality can be better understood through scientific research which helps understand and adhere to religion better. There is a conjunctive of knowledge between science and religion which if strengthened is in the favor of the future of the human race. Science and religion have a point where the two schools of thoughts converge. One of the points is quality of being spectral.Although scientists wo rk on the bum of rationality, they still have a spiritual side which allows them to keep faith while exploring the horizons of science and melodic phrase. In an article titled Science vs. Religion What Scientists Really Think, the author Elaine Ecklund states that even atheists have a certain level of spiritism within them. The spirituality may not necessarily be associated with keeping faith however there is a curiosity regarding the origination and formation of our plant and existence (Elaine, 2010). The spiritual side within scientists is promoted by their upbringing and education.The spiritual side makes them interested in religious beliefs. Through their scientific approach and belief in religious concepts, it makes it easier for them to focus on scientific research and proving religious concepts to be accurate (Elaine, 2010). Therefore spirituality leads to a better scientific reasoning approach to be adopted. Through religious involvement scientific research can be refine d and complex questions can be answered. ethics and reality go hand in hand. Morality is the banding of values and attitudes that are generally acceptable by a particular society for a particular moment in time.Religion requires a great focus on displaying moral behavior. Morality can be better displayed by understanding reality and how it is affected by moral thinking. Morality is required by religion whereas reality is explained by science proving that there is a deeper link rather than a conflict. Through scientific reasoning we are able to deduce the right way to behave in a society. These studies can help assess what moral behavior is. The article Religion vs. Science outlines the scientific efforts to better understand moral behavior which helps us adhere to religious principles in a better way (Honner, 1994).Science is able to study all factors that affect behavior including societal norms, environmental conditions and personal feelings. By quantifying morality, we are abl e to develop a better understanding of what constitutes morality. This indicates that the relationship between science and religion is one of elucidation rather than a source of conflict (Honner, 1994). Therefore rather than thinking about a conflict being in existence, we should follow the results of scientific research and studies to better clarify religious beliefs.Through scientific research we are able to uncover and understand the abstract concepts that religion defines. Queries about our existence can be answered by a careful examination of religious concepts complimented with a thorough scientific analysis. In an article name God, creation, science, religion the conflicts by Tom Chivers, the author tells us that scientist in order to deduce the actual age of the Earth moved to religious transcripts appearing in the Bible. Although the Bible did not provide dates however did contain information on the characteristics of the people at the time.This was a major input in the sc ientific breakthrough (Tom, 2009). The scientific declarations cannot be denied as they have been institutional to the development of the knowledge and understanding regarding the universe. By further considering the importance of religion we would have it away across certain questions that have been yet to be answered by scientific research. Through this connection we can uncover various mysteries concerning the universe and everything within it (Tom, 2009). People should develop a thorough understanding of the concepts of both extremes.Through this understanding we would be able to develop a much better connection between science and religion and resolve all mysteries which would give us a better understanding of who we are and why we exist. Referring to the first tax return argument, it states that science and religion converge because a level of spirituality exists between the followers of the two extremes. The argument is refuted by the original thesis stating that although t he spiritual level does exist however this would not lead to the convergence of ideas arising within the two schools of thoughts.The reason behind it is the fact that there is a lack of acceptance of conclusions by scholars of both the extremes leading to a never ending conflict. Referring to the second counter argument, it states that science and religion add to each other in way that science leads to a better understanding of moral behavior which is a pre-requisite for religious believers. However the original thesis refutes this argument by saying that although the concepts add to each other however there are vast misconceptions in the minds of the followers of both science and religion.These misconceptions incur in the middle and cause the conflict to extend rather than stretchiness a resolution point. Referring to the final counter argument, it states that there is no conflict between the fields because religious beliefs and knowledge acts as a basis of scientific research an d discovery. This argument is challenged by the original thesis in a manner that although this can be the case however people classify themselves as being either religious or scientific. collectible to this classification, the connection between science and religion cannot be established.References Alfred, N. (n. d. ). Religion and Science. Retrieved on October 4th, 2011 from http//www. theatlantic. com/magazine/archive/1925/08/religion-and-science/4220/ Dan, C. (2006). God vs. Science. Retrieved on October 4th, 2011 from http//www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0%2c9171%2c1555132%2c00. html Elaine, H. (2010). Science vs. Religion discovers what scientists really think about religion. Retrieved on October 4th, 2011 from http//www. washingtonpost. com/wpdyn/content/article/2010/05/28/AR2010052801856. tml Ecklund, E. , & Park, J. Z. (2009). Conflict Between Religion and Science Among Academic Scientists?. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48(2), 276-292. inside10. 1111/ j. 1468-5906. 2009. 01447. x Honner, J. (1994). Science vs. religion (II). Commonweal, 121(16), 14. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Martin-Hansen, L. (2008). First-Year College Students Conflict with Religion and Science. Science & Education, 17(4), 317-357. doi10. 1007/s11191-006-9039-5 Tom, C. (2009). God, creation, science,
Being a girl of a mixed heathenish background, you can imagine the diversity of language apply across my family. The emphasiss and accents bind a wide variety as my family be spread alone across the globe. My go carol is British born and bred in the Essex verdant side. Whereas my father ahmed is, half Lebanese and half Palestinian. My mums eldest language is position and she speaks in standard side of meat, this could be because of her profession as a nurse has an influence on her speech and it wouldnt be professional of her to constantly use conversational language. My fathers initial language is Arabic, the Palestinian dialect Arabic.There are so many dialects of Arabic sometimes it seems like its a completely diametrical language He can alike speak French as fluid as he can Arabic because French is also a main language in Lebanon. he is also legato in incline, but he has an Arab accent. My father lives in Lebanon so his dialect of Arabic has changed to the Lebanes e dialect because of his surroundings but he understood has a twang of the Palestinian dialect. The main languages in my family are English and Arabic, but thither are so many dialects, such as Egyptian, Jordanian, Emirati, Lebanese, Moroccan, Saudi Arabian, Syrian Arabic and Essex accents, Dorset accent, Scottish accent, American accent, Australian accent. This is exactly the start of the variety of language in my familySo youre believably thinking, what is my first language? Well, I was born in the United Arab Emirates in the Emirate of Dubai. Yes, I think it too why did I immigrate to glad England? Growing up in Dubai my first language was English because my m opposites Arabic was rattling basic however I was fluent in Arabic and could also speak some Tagalog as I was brought up with a Pilipino nanny, Lily. I immigrated to England when I was about 4 or 5 years old, I was constantly speaking English. I recommend some of my mums friends telling me I had a unconvincing Americ an accent. But my accent quickly changed because of influences around me in school. My name is Said, but its pronounced Syed and I remember reading the trailer and Chip books in my first school and saying and Chip Syed this. My teacher found it highly amusingEver since I moved to England, everyplace the years I slowly forgot how to speak Arabic as I got out of the habit of speaking in Arabic often. Now I whole know greetings and little phrases in Arabic. Trying to learn Arabic again was extremely difficult because Im so used to the rules in the English language such as the Ough sound. Being so used to certain rules re every(prenominal)y affects trying to learn a overbold language, especially Arabic. Learning Arabic was very incompatible to English and the Arabic alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet, which include sounds as vigorous as letters. Also not every word in Arabic can be translated perfectly into English, and there is no word in the English language fo r it. Sometimes its hard to get a near enough definition of the word without meaning something else.Also in Arabic they can have one word which in the English language translates to a group of row or a sentence. From my experiencing of study Arabic again I have noticed that the language is very cultural and influence by religion, for example a lot of words or phrases refer to god (Allah). However not just Muslims and ghostly the great unwashed use these words, these words are used by all Arabic speakers. In the Spanish language I realized a difference in tenses. In English there are only three tenses, present, past and the future. Whereas in the Spanish language there are many more. This takes its complicated and more difficult to learn as realistically there is only 3 tenses, and its hard to picture other tenses.I would describe my accent as a southern English accent. My cousins who live in Essex say that I have a brightonian accent, is there such thing? According to my cousins , people from Brighton raise their tone at the end of every sentence like they are constantly intercommunicate questions. I cant notice myself doing it or other people doing it around me. The way I rebuke changes depending on the context. For example, when Im with my friends I use a large amount of colloquial language.Whereas when Im with my mum or teachers I would not use this language, I would talk in a more Standard English way. Having a lot of friends from an ethnic community, Ive learnt a lot of slang and colloquial words. Even though these friends are from an Arabic background, I would never talk to my family in the Middle East in this way. I think I change the way I speak to different people, depending on who it is to make a good impression and to make my language appropriate to the situation. The different use of language always comes back to the context its used in.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
There is no credible picture that schooling styles exist. While we exit elaborate on this assertion, it is terrific to subvert the genuine harm that whitethorn be d star by equivocating on the matter. In what follows, we testament begin by defining schooling styles then we impart address the title of respects made by those who believe that they exist, in the process acknowledging what we aver the valid claims of starting-styles theorists. nevertheless in separating the wheat from the pseudoscientific chaff in teaching-styles system, we pull up stakes make clear that the wheat is contained in new(prenominal)(a) educational approaches as well.A article of faith in information styles is non demand to incorporating useful knowledge just nearly go steadying into unmatchables command. We lead then discuss the reasons why learning styles beliefs argon so prevalent. Fin on the wholey, we will offer suggestions about collegiate pedagogy, given that we slang no separate learning styles do non exist. What is a Learning Style? The claim at the center of learning-styles theory is this Different schoolchilds bring on varied trends of learning, and their learning could be improved by matching cardinals indoctrinateing with that preferred learning mode.The way theorists suffer defined modes of learning has changed oer the more than(prenominal) than 50 years that this concept has been in vogue. Proposed modes allow include dichotomies such(prenominal) as linear vs. holistic, impulsive vs. reflective, reasoning vs. insight, and visual vs. verbal. The closely popular current conception of learning styles equates style with the preferred hooey understanding by means of which one receives information, whether it be visual, auditive, or kinesthetic (for round reason, no one claims that thither are tactile or olfactive apprentices).We use this sensory definition of learning styles in the examples below, scarcely our conclusions take to equ each(prenominal)y to other definitions. As you will see, the claim that the mode of demonstration should match the preferred mode of learning subsumes several(prenominal) other claims, and it is worth(predicate) unpacking the learning-styles concept in order to consider its constituent subclaims separately. Which Claims of Learning-Styles Theorists are even up? We believe that about general assertions of learning-styles proponents have nearly universal consensus, establish on a wealth of differentiate.We begin by acknowledging the truth of these claims in order to protestentiate them from other ones without fight. The commencement ceremony claim is this Learners are different from each other, these differences affect their functioning, and teachers should take these differences into account. This is dead on target and recognized by educators and cognitive scientists alike. While many of those scientists seek to discover general principles of learning, we all bed that there are differences among students. Understanding these differences and applying that understanding in the campaign of instructionroom usher out improve everyones education.We can find further agreement on some of the differences that matter for learning. First, whether we call it talent, ability, or intelligence, passel convert in their capacity to learn different areas of case. One of the authors (Riener) has fraternal twin sons, and contempt having most of the same implements, one has learned to read earlier and the other is a better basketball player. This is clearly due to genetic differences in talent quite a than a bizarre experiment in which the parents persistent that one would be a basketball player and the other a professor.With educators under 6 feet tall for both parents and grandparents, they are both probably doomed to proceed to graduate school rather than to the NBA. Second, and ofttimes intertwined with ability, students differ in their inter ests. If a student loves the piano, or basketball, or chess, or the biological science of frogs, that student will no doubt learn material cogitate to that subject faster than a nonher one who does non share that fascination. We all agree that interest and heed are presumptions of learning and vary from student to student, depending on the subject.Third, students differ in their background knowledge, and that difference influences their learning. This is obviously true in the sense that a large vocabulary allows one to read a wider variety of books. And it is further true in fields such as history One cant hope to learn much about the causes and consequences of the American Civil War without knowing facts about the growth and separation of the colonies, the history of economic differences between the North and the South, policy-making facts about our three branches of government, etc.But background knowledge is similarly quite important in things we think of as skills. For ex ample, learning basic math facts is critical to the acquisition of later math skills. Finally, some students have special learning disabilities, and these affect their learning in peculiar(prenominal)ized ways. For example, there is sizable research on dyslexia and the strategies for addressing it. These strategies of course differ from those grant for those students on the autistic spectrum or those with hearing difficulties.In each of these cases, a specific difference in the student calls for individual diagnosis and attention. So in claiming that learning styles do not exist, we are not saying that all scholars are the same. Rather, we assert that a certain number of dimensions (ability, background knowledge, interest) vary from person to person and are known to affect learning. The emphasis on learning styles, we think, often comes at the cost of attention to these other important dimensions. What Do Learning-Styles Theorists Get Wrong?The next claim is that learners ha ve preferences about how to learn that are independent of both ability and content and have meaningful implications for their learning. These preferences are not better or faster, according to learning-styles proponents, but merely styles. In other words, just as our social selves have personalities, so do our memories. Students do have preferences about how they learn. Many students will report preferring to study visually and others through an auditory channel.However, when these tendencies are displace to the test under controlled conditions, they make no differencelearning is uniform whether students learn in the preferred mode or not. A deary mode of presentation (e. g. , visual, auditory, or kinesthetic) often reveals itself to be instead a preference for tasks for which one has high ability and at which one feels successful. But even if we did identify preferences that were independent of ability, finding ones that are independent of content is a much trickier proposition . If I were to tell you I want to teach you something.Would you rather learn it by seeing a slide line of battle, reading it as text, hearing it as a podcast, or enacting it in a series of movements, do you think you could answer without first asking what you were to learna dance, a piece of music, or an equation? While it may reckon like a silly example, the claim of the learning styles approach is that one could make such a choice and improve ones learning through that choice, independent of content. We all agree that some kids show more interest in math, some start their education more interested in poetry, and others are more interested in dodgeball.The test copy that the learning-styles theorist must find is that for some sort of contentwhether it be math, poetry, or dodgeballchanging the mode of presentation to match the learning styles helps people learn. That evidence has simply not been found. Finally, we arrive at the critical and specific claim of learning-styles propo nents Learning could be improved by matching the mode of reading to the preferred learning style of the student. Learning-styles believers do not make the claim that students sort neatly into sensory categories One need not be purely visual, auditory or kinesthetic.But according to the theory, an educator should be able to improve the performance of those who have a hearty preference for one of these sensory styles by matching instruction to their preference. adversity to find any experimental support for matching the mode of instruction to a preferred learning style would simply leave us where we were at the end of the section above Students have different interests, backgrounds, and abilities. And indeed, a recent review article in the journal Psychological cognition in the Public Interest by a group of distinguished entrepot researchers sought to find evidence for this claim in particular.If you are visual, you should learn better with a visual presentation of information th an with an auditory one. If you are auditory, you should learn better with auditory materials than with visual ones. Each of this twain of results is necessary to support this element of learning-styles theory. But experiments that tested this prediction with a variety of content material have not found support for it. While such evidence of learning styles would serve as a proofread that they exist, the lack of evidence does not prove definitively that they do not exist.However, in order to persuade us to devote the time and efficacy to adopt a certain kind of differentiated teaching, the burden of proof is on those who argue for the existence of that description of students cognitive strategies. In other words, a good rule of thumb is that we should only bring estimates from the research laboratory into our teaching if (1) we are sure that the laboratory phenomena exist under at least some conditions and (2) we understand how to usefully apply these laboratory phenomena to ins truction.The first of these two conditions is not met for learning styles, and the first is obviously a precondition for the second. Why Does the Belief in Learning Styles Persevere? What are the reasons for this figments perseverance? First, we think that a belief in learning styles persists because the more general claims (the ones we turn to above) are true. Learners do differ from one another. But many who believe in the myth do not consider the critical differences between styles and abilities. Teachers should take into account the differences in learners abilities.And adjusting a lesson not just to be appropriately pitched at the students direct of ability but to take into account their background knowledge and interests is for sure an important first step in fostering learning. Second, a belief in learning styles fits into an egalitarian view of education Everyone has value, according to the theory, and everyone has strengths. The corollary for some learning-styles theori sts is that if you think that the theory is wrong, you must think that all students are analogouswhich is obviously untrue.Again, we agree that students differ and all students have value, but we do not need learning-styles theory to convince us of that. Third, learning-styles theory has succeeded in becoming common knowledge. Its widespread acceptance serves as an unfortunately induce reason to believe it. This is accompanied by a well-known cognitive phenomenon called the confirmation bias. When evaluating our own beliefs, we tend to seek out information that confirms our beliefs and write out contrary information, even when we encounter it repeatedly.When we see someone who professes to be a visual learner excel at geography and an auditory learner excel at music, we do not seek out the information which would disprove our interpretation of these events (can the auditory learner learn geography through hearing it? Can the visual learner become better at music by seeing it? ) Why Should College Educators Care? We have addressed the direct costs of the learning-styles myth above, but there are considerable opportunity costs as well. The same research in cognitive science and education that has failed to find evidence for learning styles has offered many insights into how memory does work.mindset (2006) by Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck is an excellent summary of the interesting ways that incentivesboth carrots and sticksas well as internal drives influence learning. And henry L. Roediger and his associates at Washington University in St. Louis have demonstrated the value of interrogatory for learning. stock-still the act of taking a test when one does not know the answers can support learning the correct answers faster and more effectively. Of course learning is an enormously complex activity, and this is not the place to blueprint all of the basic research on learning.We seek only to evince that attention to learning styles, for which evidence ha s not been found, may lead educators to snub research on learning for which there is solid scientific support. Even though the belief in learning styles has influenced pedagogy in the schools removed more than it has in higher education, we believe that there are several other reasons faculty might pay attention to the fact that researchers have failed to find evidence of learning styles, reasons that have important implications for the college yrroom.First, when we poll our undergraduate classes on the belief in a number of myths of popular psychology, the one that people have their own learning styles is typically endorsed by more than 90 percent of our students. This belief has the potential to shape and constrain the experience that students have in the college schoolroom. For example, if a student believes she is a visual learner and therefore disengages and daydreams when a lecturer turns off the PowerPoint and tells a story, this will proceed her from learning the concep t through a compelling narrative.And while these beliefs may not have as direct an impact on performance reviews as they do in K-12 settings, a belief in learning styles occasionally shows up in student evaluations of teaching I am a visual learner, so the visual examples were good, or I am an auditory learner, so more auditory content would have helped. Second, learning-styles theory is sometimes offered as a reason to include digital media in the classroom.While including multimedia may be a good idea in general (variety in modes of presentation can hold students attention and interest, for example), it is not necessary to tailor your media to different learning styles. We shouldnt compliment ourselves for showing a video to engage the visual learners or pass podcasts to the auditory learners. Rather, we should realize that the value of the video or audio will be determined by how it suits the content that we are asking students to learn and the backgroundknowledge, interests, and abilities that they bring to it. Instead of asking whether we engaged the right sense (or learning mode), we should be asking, what did students think about while they were in class? Finally, when one has the opportunity in a smaller class to watch information about students and more specifically to tailor a lesson to that particular group of students, it is a waste of time to assess learning styles rather than, for instance, background knowledge. The latter can obviously be extremely useful.We often use prerequisites to ensure common background knowledge of students in a given class, but assessment at the beginning of a class can be an excellent reminder of how little of the prerequisite course content is easily recalled. Assessment of student interest can in addition be a useful tool for deciding how to approach the material in a given class. Some indication can be gained by what majors are represented in the class, but more specific interests assessed through a brief questi onnaire or class preaching can also be useful in certain situations, such as small or homogeneous classes.So here is the lagger line Students differ in their abilities, interests, and background knowledge, but not in their learning styles. Students may have preferences about how to learn, but no evidence suggests that catering to those preferences will lead to better learning. As college educators, we should apply this to the classroom by continuing to present information in the most appropriate manner for our content and for the level of prior knowledge, ability, and interests of that particular set of students. Resources 1. Dweck, C.(2006) Mindset The new psychology of success, Random House, New York, NY. 2. Paschler, H. , McDaniel, M. , Rohrer, D. and Bjork, R. (2010) Learning styles Concepts and evidence. Psychological learning in the Public Interest 9, pp. 105-119. 3. Roediger, H. L. and Karpicke, J. D. (2006) The power of testing memory canonical research and implications for educational practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science 1, pp. 181-210. Cedar Riener is an friend professor of psychology at Randolph-Macon College. Daniel Willingham is a professor of psychology at the University of Virginia.He blogs at the Washington Post and is the author of Why outweart Students Like School? (Jossey-Bass, 2009). Related Notes Change Magazine September-October 2010The falsehood of Learning Styles by Cedar Riener and Daniel Willingham There is no credible evidence that learning styles exist. While we will elaborate on this assertion, it is important to counteract the Learning with es A convenient untruthThursday, 24 November 2011 A convenient untruth What do you think is the teachers strap enemy? Some would say lack of time. Others would say unsupportive leadership, or the dreaded government inspect