Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Geology Exam Questions

As seen by an observer on domain, a flair that is moving away from the populace would puzzle ______ light cleverness waves. A. expanded B. compressed *E. both(prenominal) A and D atomic be 18 correct 2. The theory that tries to beg withdraw the ocellus of the worldly concern r bourgeons about the idea that __________. *B. the original pitch blackness hole exploded and scattered clouds of uncharged particles moving at high velocities 3. What was the first factor drawed during the cr eat upion of the universe? *B. henry 4. Our solar system was created by *A. the contraction of clouds of elements origin bothy physical bodyed by the explosion of supernovas 5. much or less how old is our universe? A. 13. 7 zillion days old 6. Heat is being continuously released wi stretch the Earth through the process of *C. elements releasing subatomic particles and losing mass 7. Which of the sp atomic number 18- conviction activity minerals does non belong with the other(a)s? A . iron pyrite B. bornite C. sphalerite D. cinnabar *E. they all belong together 8. An earthly concernquake is not codswallop off the coast of Vancouver Island.Which statement is close to correct *B. S-waves ar detected after P-waves 9. In an argona of the c dilapidate with an average geothermal gradient (from course manual), what would the temperature be 22km below the surface, if the surface temperature is 25C? *D. 85C 10. The Hawaiian Island ambit was formed by which cardinal of the pursuit processes? *C. movement of the Pacific plate over a stationary mantle plume cause the formation of a string of vol commodeoes 11. The Himalayas fractureed directly from the process of ________ *E. plate collision 12. Intermediate sizingd tectonic plates include which of the future(a)? A. Nazca B. Eurasian C. Scotia D. genus Cocos D. all of the above *E. unaccompanied A, C, and D 13. The floor of the Atlantic is widening why then is there a ridgepole in the middle? *B. volcanism 14 . How untold pepperiness goose egg is required to raise the temperature of 50g of piss by 10C? B. 500 calories 15. Match the next item with the closest related phrase. Continental Rift A. East Pacific Rise B. subduction zone C. Canadian Shield *D. Mount Kilimanjaro E. Mount St. Helens 18. Earths archness is being destroyed at _______ and created at ________. *C. subduction zones, divergent boundaries 19. A felsic joust is formed at comparatively ________ temperatures and is the first to ________ when temperature increases during burial.*A. low, melt 21. Native metals tend to save which of the following properties? A. high malleability B. only one fount of bonding C. good electrical conductivity D. all of the above 22. A mineral composed of weak bonds, tends to bring the following characteristics A. high solubility B. soft C. has mostly ionic bonds D. has mostly covalent bonds E. only A and C argon correct *F. A, B and C ar all correct 23. What is the most cat valium gro up of minerals found in Earths insolence? *B. silicate minerals 24. Which minerals have similar structure but diametric piece of music? *D. albite and anorthite 26. A(n) _______ magma is relatively high in _________. A. andesitic Fe, Mg and Ca B. basaltic K and Na *C. rhyolitic K and Na D. granitic Fe and Mg 27.When magma cools, which atoms tend to bond first? *D. atomic number 14 and oxygen 28. Which of the following statements is authoritative? *D. the main reason for volatiles in magma to be released is a sudden decrease in confining compress. 29. This question refers to radioactive decay. What is the p atomic number 18nt/daughter ratio after two half- have it offs? *A. 13 30. Which of the following terms does not belong with the other? A. quartz *B. rhyolite C. olivine D. muscovite 31. An ardent rock that cools rapidly at the Earths surface has which of the following textures? C. aphanitic D. startery *E. both C and D ar possible 32.Igneous rocks are classified by their ______. A. colour B. texture C. slice *D. all of the above 33. When the Earth was relatively new-made, what gases were present in the strain? *A. H20, CH4, SO2, NH3 B. H20, CH4, NH4, O2 C. SO3, CH4, O2, CO2 D. N2, O2, Ar, CO2 34. Where did wet on Earth originate? A. volcanic out-gassing B. collison of comets with Earth C. collision of protoplanets with Earth *D. all of the above 35. Heat is currently confused from the Earths surface at an average rate of 2. 410-6 cal/cm2/s2. If the Earths surface is 510,072,000km2, how much heat is lost in 1 year (3. 15x107s)? Dont immobilise to convert units) A. 3. 86 x 1010 cal/year *B. 3. 86 x 1020 cal/year C. 3. 86 cal/year D. 6. 76 x 1016 cal/year 37. Which rock frequently contains glass fragments and vesicles, indicating rapid alter? *C. basalt 38. According to current theory, how did heavier elements form? *C. they formed due to the concretion of light source atoms ( such as hydrogen) on a lower floor high temperature and pressures 39. Which of the following features was formed part by erosion processes? *B. exfoliation dome 40. The addition of oxygen into Earths melodic line is thought to have been produced by which of the following mechanisms? B. photosynthesis 41. A dispirited coloured mineral, which splits into sheets and has one plane of cleavage is *D. biotite 42. What type picture of eruptions would you expect in volcanoes of the Andes mountain range? *B. occasional, violently explosive eruptions 43. Heat from the Earths amount of money is transferred to the surface through solid rock via ______ and _______ when it is transported as magma/lava in volcanoes. Once it reaches the surface the heat is then lost to the atmosphere by ______. C. conduction, convection, radiation 44. Which geologic feature supports the theory of plate tectonics? A. the mid-Atlantic ridgeB. subduction zones C. fogey records *D. all of the above 45. On the ocean floor, low-intensity stripes of magnetism that exhibit regularl y reversing signal *D. weaken the existing charismatic field 46. Which of the following things best supports the theory that continents split apart? A. Continental drift B. downwarping *C. continental rifting 47. Diamond shows an ex adenosine monophosphateerele of what type of bond formed between Carbon atoms? *A. covalent bonds 2. When a rock breaks into many small pieces it ____________ A. increases the surface area available for chemical attack C. is cal guide mechanized weathering D. both A & adenosine monophosphate C are correct 3. Halite dissolves in water so readily because __________ *B. polar water molecules disrupt the winning forces in the halite crystal and release the ions into solution 4. Index fossils are *C. fossils of creatures that appeared and went extinct relatively quickly 5. You notice that there is a lot of rust on your car. Which of the following weathering processes was responsible for the destruction of your car? *C. oxidation 6. why do lifesize coral reefs not exist in the Arctic nautical? NOTE coral reefs are mainly composed of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate). *D. alcite is soluble in cold water and the coral skeletons dissolve before they can accumulate into large deposits 8. Which of the following processes is most responsible for the low nutrient content of tropical undercoats? *C. leaching 9. Which rock will potentially undergo the greatest rate of chemical alteration? *A. whole rock 10. The location of the snowline is most affected by _______ and ________. *C. latitude, altitude 11. Gypsum is not found deep in the earths crust because B. the temperature is too high C. water molecules are lost and anhydrite is formed *D. both statement B and C are correct 14.Which of the following earths would you most in all probability find in agricultural fields around Guelph? A. Podzolic 15. The internal movement of glacier ice depends on A*B. the internal ice transfer between collection and deletion zones 16. Changes in global temperatu re can be attributed to A. variations in incoming solar radiation B. shifts in Earths axis of rotation C. composition of the Earths atmosphere *D. all of the above are correct 17. Which of the following milieus is most suitable for the formation of coal? *B. wetland 18. The highly productive soils in vast areas of China FIRST originated from _______ *A. indblown silt 19. What is the main way that silicate minerals are weathered? *B. hydrolysis 20. When a glacier glides along the ground surface the process is called *D. basal slipperiness 22. The movement of glacier ice is normally most rapid rise the _________ *B. surface of the glacier 23. Which of the following landscape features of Canada is NOT attributed to the marrow of Pleistocene glaciers? *A. the Canadian Shield 25. Cross-bedded moxie deposits in a point bar of a meandering stream were created by which of the following die hard regimes? *B. subcritical flow 26.A sedimentary deposit created by a gradual decrease in flo w focal ratio (as in a waning flood), would have which of the following vertical stratigraphic profiles? *A. fining upwards 27. From Hjulstoms diagram in Unit 8 of the course notes, the water velocity required to erode gravel is_______________ the velocity to move clay particles. *D. about equal to 28. Which rock would be least likely to contain fossils? *D. basalt 29. Which sediment grain size has the highest permeability (ability of the poppycock to transmit fluids)? *B. gravel 31. The formation of crevasses in glaciers is because __________________. A. ce near the undersurface of a glacier moves slower than surface ice, causing stress C. ice in the upper part of a glacier is brittle and does not exhibit plastic flow *D. A and C are both correct 32. Which of the following minerals has one perfect cleavage? *D. biotite 33. Jurassic Park The Lost World was actually hit the books in *C. The Quaternary 34. Ventifacts form as a result of *C. aeolian transport in desert environmen ts 35. What volcanic feature is (are) the most dangerous to live near *B. rhyolitic strato volcano 38. Which one of these items does not belong with the others? A. continental rise *B. alluvial fan C. turbidite fanD. continental shelf E. abyssal plain 39. Which of the following statements is (are) the most correct to describe the conditions required for truly laminar flow in a river? *E. true laminar flow does not elapse in internal rivers 40. Mineralogical maturity increases when ___________ *D. the quartz content of the rock is increasing 41. The photo shows a fossilized fish. What is the most likely form of preservation? (Image from *B. carbonization 42. In general, as a river becomes narrower, and the depth remains the same, the current *A. increases in velocity 43. Which of the following is the best example of a hunt down fossil? A. termite tunnel 44. Which of the following pairs is the best example of convergent evolution? *D. killer whale and shark 45. A volcanic rock con sisting of abundant angular rock fragments has a _____________ texture. This is exemplary of __________ volcanism. *C. fragmental, explosive 46. During a field trip, you dig a small pit in a pine forest to guide the soil profile of the study site. Below the dark surface layer, a thin, light coloured vista is followed by a reddish coloured horizon. Considering your knowledge of the Canadian system of soil classification, what soil type is it? *D. Podzolic 47.A pluton is an intrusive igneous rock body that crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface. Which of the following are examples of plutonic bodies? A. batholiths B. dikes C. sills D. laccoliths *E. all of the above 48. What is the main feature used to variantiate between modern corals and ancient corals? *C. the structure of their skeleton 49. The __________ silicates make up the majority of the Earths continental crust. *A. three-dimensional framework 50. The Sun produces energy by nuclear ________ answers. *C . fusion 1. What environmental conditions are optimal for chemical weathering? D. warm, wet conditions 3. Which dating method is most often used to date geologically new-fashioned events? *A. carbon-14 4. Which of the following is not an classic principle of stratigraphy? *D. crystal fractionation 5. A theory that tries to explain the origin of the universe assumes that all matter was once concentrated in an extremely small space called a black hole. Some properties of a black hole include which of the following? A. high densities B. large gravitational force C. neutral state *D. all of the above 6. The age of the Earth is approximately *A. 4. 6 billion years 7.When the Earths crust began to form, which of the following gases were added to the original atmosphere? A. water vapour B. methane *D. only A and B 8. The oldest known fossils found in archean rocks were *B. cyanobacteria 9. Which of the following are sources of heat for the Earth? A. primeval heat left from the formatio n of the planet B. collision of subatomic particles produced during radioactive decay C. solar heat *D. all of the above 10. The potpourri in temperature with depth is called the geothermal gradient. Under normal circumstances the geothermal gradient is approximately *B. 30/km 11.As seen by an observer on Earth, a star that is moving away from our planet would appear more _______ than the same type which is moving toward the Earth. *B. reddish 12. Which type of rock would be formed deep within the crust? B. igneous C. plutonic *D. both B and C 13. Where would you expect to find new igneous rocks being formed? A. Andes Mountains B. Mid-Atlantic rooftree *D. A and B are both correct 14. With reference to Bowens reaction series, which mineral is formed under very hot conditions and is rich in magnesium? *A. olivine Inert gases do not react with the surrounding environment. Why is this? *A. they have full outer orbitals 6. A good example of a mineral that contains Van der Waals bonds is *C. graphite 17. The Andes mountains developed directly from the process of ________ *A. plate subduction 18. with reference to Bowens reaction series, the ___________ form a continuous reaction series. *C. oligoclase-feldspar group 21. An igneous rock that cools very rapidly at the Earths surface has which of the following textures? *C. glassy 22. Which type of soil would you expect to find in a wetland? *C. gleysolic 23. The type of weathering process that effects plutonic rocks and is sometimes called unloading is called ____________ *B. exfoliation 4. Submarine eruptions at mid-ocean ridges produce fresh lava flows of _________ composition. *D. basaltic 25. Youngest rock A. *B. 26. Oldest rock *A. B. C. D. E 27. Continental collision zone A. B. C. *D. E 28. Abyssal plain A. B. *C. D. E 29. The boundary between the accumulation and ablation zone in a glacier is called *A. firn line 30. Continental drift, volcanism and mountain building are primarily driven by *A. mantle conv ection 31. P-waves *A. vibrate parallel to the snap of travel, travel fast, travel through liquids. 32. Which of the following is most likely to be hold as a carbonized impression? D. a leaf 33. Which of the following statements is true? *A. few organisms become preserved as fossils after death 34. The lengthening or stretching of the crust can result in _______ faulting as shown in the diagram. *B. normal 35. The San Andreas Fault is what type of fault? *D. strike-slip 36. shits are divided into horizons which are labelled in order from the top down as *C. A, B and C 37. A rock under stress can behave in which of the following ways? *D. all of the above 38. What is (are) the major factor(s) involved in metamorphism? A. pressure B. temperature *E. A and B only 9. When liquid magma rises through solid rock, the solid rock can undergo ____________ metamorphism? *A. contact 40. Regional metamorphism can produce new platy or elongated minerals that are aligned *C. perpendicular to th e principal stress applied 41. The Big Bang is thought to have occurred *A. 13. 7 billion years ago 42. In the cores of stars _________ reactions occur to produce new heavier elements *A. atomic fusion 43. Chemical weathering mainly results when minerals react with *E. water, oxygen and carbon dioxide 44. The explosion of a star is known as a *B. supernova 45.Which of the following is considered a fossil fuel? *B. coal 46. The relative Geologic Time Scale is based on *B. fossil assemblages 47. The Rock Cycle is *B. a model for the changes undergone by Earth materials over time 48. Grooves, crescent-molded gouges, chatter marks and striations are examples of *A. small carapace glacial erosion features 49. The maximum extent of a continental glacier is typically marked by a(n) __________. *B. terminal moraine 50. Which of the following is a sediment produced directly from glacier ice? *C. till 51. Place the following sedimentary structures in order of increasing stream velocity. C. r ipples, dunes, plane beds 52. weave streams result when rivers have A. large fluctuations in rivulet B. abundant sediments *E. A and B are both correct 53. When atoms with 4-6 electrons in their outer orbitals join, they form a covalent bond which can be set forward as A. sharing of electrons B. difficult to form C. very strong after formation *D. all of the above are true 54. __________ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone. *C. marble 55. __________ is characterized by the segregation of light- and dark-coloured minerals into thin layers or bands. *B. gneiss 56.In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely? *C. at great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding 57. The ion at the centre of a silicon tetrahedron is surrounded by ____________. *A. 4 oxygen ions 58. The simplest element and the one which was formed first after the big bang is *E. hydrogen 59. In feldspars, what element substitutes for silicon at the centre of the tetrahe dron? *B. aluminum 60. What are vesicles? *D. open spaces formed in the rock as lava solidifies around gas bubbles 61. Which of the following is an example of a trace fossil? *D. a worm burrow 62.Which of the following is the dominant volcanic rock in Hawaii and Iceland? *D. basalt 63. When the ratio of radioactive parent to stable daughter product reaches 13, ________ half-lives have passed. *D. two 64. The formation of the Hawaiian Islands is associated with *D. no plate boundary of any kind 65. Why is the humus (organic) layer typically thicker in a cool, temperate, forest soil than in a tropical rainforest soil? *B. less humus is produced in the cool, temperate forest but the rate of decay is slower than in a tropical rainforest 66. The world oceans are too large to have the sea level changed by glaciers *B. alse 67. Which of the following is a colonial organism that is, many individuals share the same skeleton? *D. coral 68. Which of the following affects the settling velocity of common sense grains? *D. all of the above 69. Sediments transported by water or wind can be sorted according their size and density. A byproduct of such sorting is a typical feature ALL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS have. What is such *D. layers 70. When the limbs of a fold are bowed upward in the form of a V, the structure is called a(n) *D. syncline 71. If the steep side of a roche moutonnee is on the northeast, it alludes that the glacier came from what direction? B. southwest 72. Which one of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulders and bedrock? *D. ice wedging 73. Of the following, which geologic time is the oldest? *B. Precambrian 74. The Red Sea is forming along a *B. divergent boundary 75. The destruction of the Minoan civilization can be tied at least indirectly to *A. a violent volcanic eruption 76. A __________ shaped cross- valley profile is typical of valleys eroded and deepened by alpi ne or valley glaciers. *A. U 77.A(n) __________ represents a former meltwater tunnel in glacial ice that was filled with fluvial sand and gravel. *A. esker 78. The theory of relativity states that *C. time is not a constantit varies depending on the speed of the observer 79. Many scientists believe that the Earth is heating up due to the greenhouse effect. Which of the following gasses is the largest contributor to this effect? *C. carbon dioxide 80. The term metamorphic facies refers to *A. a particular assemblage of minerals that form under specific conditions of temperature and pressure 81. The definition of a calorie is *A. he change in heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C at sea level 82. The Atlantic marine is *B. two hundred million years old and growing. 83. Coarsening upward in grain size is typical of deposits from which type of depositional system? *B. deltas 84. Convergent evolution occurs when? *B. species with different origins begin t o evolve similar characteristics because they share the same environment 85. Which of the following is a requirement of index fossils? *A. they lived during a specific time period only 86. In a cross section of a stream channel, why is the flow velocity slowest near the bottom? B. because of friction between the water and the streambed 87. The telephone exchange part of an atom is called the *D. nucleus 88. The term dip refers to *D. the angle between a sloping bed of rock and the horizontal 89. Studies of the Atlantic ocean-floor rocks show that A. the magnetic field of the Earth reverses periodically C. new rock is being formed at the Mid-Atlantic ridge, causing the ocean to become wider *E. A and C are both correct 90. The term orogeny refers to *A. the formation of mountains 91. Channel migration of a stream at a meandering breaking ball occurs in which direction? B. toward the outside of the bend 92. In a river, gravel would most frequently be transported *A. as bed load 93. The great majority of carbonates (limestones) are formed by *A. skeletons of gutless organisms and algae 94. Shale is a sedimentary rock formed predominantly from D. clay 95. Which of the following was an early ancestor of modern charitables? * D. Australopithecus 96. When fossils are preserved as casts, the following happens A. the original shell is buried intact B. after cementation of the surrounding sediment the shell dissolved leaving a shell shaped cavityC. minerals carried in by percolating groundwater fill the cavity *E. A, B and C are all correct 97. Which of the following trace elements released from minerals by weathering are essential for human health? *B. zinc 98. When an atom loses or gains electrons, it is called a(n) *E. ion 99. Which of the following does not fit the definition of a mineral? *C. granite What colour of light has the longest wavelength Red What element wouldnt likely have been lost to outer space when the Earth was in a molten state during the forma tion of our solar system?Lead Approximately how old is earth 4500 million years or 4. 5 Billion Which gases composed the primordial atmosphere of earth Methane, carbon dioxide, sulphur, ammonia How long did it take for earths first crust to develop 500 million years Main reason that volcanoes developed on primordial earth-uneven internal heat distribution Organic soup which produced the first organic compounds ammonia and methane In what rocks can you find the oldest known fossils Archean Rocks of western Australia Coordination number of an octahedral 6When seismic energy waves reaches a boundary between two materials Part of the energy is reflected back towards the surface P-waves vibrate parallel to the direction of transmission Composition of Achondrite meteorites most nearly resemble composition of earths crust Why do geologists think that the inner core of earth is solid P-Waves speed up there Geothermal gradient in earths crust 40 c/km Granite differ from rhyolite Granite is plutonic, rhyolite is extrusive Discontinuity between the base of the crust and the top mantel Moho discontinuity What rate does mid-atlantic ridge spread 5 cm/yearWhere does lithosphere material get destroyed subduction zones Rocks that buried under high pressure formed Metamorphic rocks Minerals all form in the same temperature range Quartz, muscovite, K-Fedlspar Ionic bonds are weak, fond in relatively soluble minerals, formed between opostely charged ions pumice floats on water because contains pockets of gas, low overall density Minerals with same chemical composition but different structures are called polymorphs (graphite and diamonds) Hardest minerals Quartz Magma consists of Dissolved gas, solid minerals, liquidAndes Moutains have formed at convergent plate boundary What causes a volcano to erupt regressive boiling of magma, ionized water changing state from liquid to gas, failureof the volcanic strumpet Lava that erupts underwater forms deposits of pillow lava intrusive b odies of rock include plutons, Laccoliths, Dikes Correct order of periods within Paleozoic Cambrian, Ordo, Sil, Devoni, Carb, Perm Large blobs of lava that are flung from volcanic cone volcanic bombs Which location is earths crust thinnest In Atlantic OceanOxidation involves Loss of electrons Soil is best defined as accumulation of weathered material Most intensly leached soil horizon A Horizon Apatite and sylvite are examples of Minerals used in the production of fertilizers Paris moraine- poorly sorted mixture of different sediments Epoch during most recent glaciation occurred Pleistocene In accumulation zone of a glacier more snow and ice being deposited than lost from melting Glacier firn snow remaining from last normalize Polar galaciers move mainly by Ice deformationCause of catastrophic meteorite impact causing mass extinction 65. 5 million years ago thin iridum-rich bed found worldwide Graded bedding on deep-ocean floor Turbidity currents River pattern ordinaryly develope d in glacial outwash plain Braided Glaciers covered Australia in Neoproterozoic and Carboniferous-Permian Little ice age occurred 600 to 100 years ago Isostatic rebound rising of earths crust after deglaction Sedimentary environments two classifications carbonate or clastic Clastic sediment . 062 to . 004- Silt, loess plainTwo common carbonate sedimentary rocks Limestone and Dolostone Idealized stream fastest water flow Near the water surface, near center of the chanel Laminar flow Low flow velocity/ Rarely found in nature Settling of particle with a . 01 diameter- Stockes law What environment are mud slides most common Alluvial fans Forest beds are found in which environment Delta Front Barrier islands large lakes, shallow continental shelves Carbonate precipitation may form Ooids Lingula is a good example of A paleo indicator Conifers belong to which class Plantae, Pinophyta, Pinospida Noahs Flood DeluvialistWhy did an organic soup develop on the primordial Earth, and not much tod ay? (image from VITAL) There was no free oxygen to oxidize it amp There was no predators back than. The energy responsible for the original heating and melting of the Earth came primarily from Radioactive decay Organic compounds can be synthesized In a laboratory amp by lightning Were inert gasses such as Argon or Neon, scattered into the universe by supernovas? Yes Approximate age of earth accepted by scientists is 4. 6 billion years Original atmosphere of earth was primarily composed of Methane and carbon dioxide Not all stars are equally hot, why?Atomic fusion reaction Doppler effect makes far away stars appear to be Redder An enormous amount of energy is needed to start fusion reaction, What type of energy led to fusion reaction in stars Kinetic The elements of the present universe were scattered into space about 8-9 billion years ago If earths intial atmosphere contained free oxygen Organic molecules would be have been destroyed as soon as they formed Is the elemental compositi on of modern earth the same as that of earliest primordial earth No What is the bang bang Origin of the universeWhen radioactive elements decay to release subatomic particles it creates Daughter elements The early composition of the Earths atmosphere was Lacking Oxygen Evidence for an original big bang Yes, distant galaxies move away from us faster than hand-to-hand ones If the half-life of Carbon-14 is 5570 years, how much of the parent elemtn will remain after 16,710 years 1/8 Earth is one of the largest ones in our soar system misguidedModel for the origin of life requires An oxygen free atmosphere Black holes are characterized by Matter contracted into very small spaces, Extremely high density, all particles are neutral. The suns energy is produced by Fusion Helium is formed from Fusion of HydrogensWhy do larger solar planets have an ammonia-rich atmosphere while Earth has an oxygen-rich atmosphere The larger gravity of larger planets traps ammonia Volcanoes could not form bef ore the development of a solid crust on Earth reliable Why did an organic soup develop on the primordial Earth and not much today There was no free oxygen amp there was no predators back then The heavy elements that we know of were formed in the original stars Yes Why did elements separate in the original earth They were marooned in relation to their mass During the early stages of the Earth, hich elements may have been lost to outer space Light ones The permissible ring of life is a suppositional zone around a distant start that may contain planets stupid 1) S-waves vibrate perpendicular to the direction of the propagation unbent 2) Everyday essence that behaves a bit like the mantle when stressed Plasticin 3) Some meteorities have more or less the same composition as the Earths crust rightful(a) 4) Our bodies can be considered as analogs for Earth. Accordingly we can recognize Heat as energy, mineral accumulation, chemical reaction. ) The boundary between the crust and the mantle shows up well in seismic studies because difference in Density 6) The properties of rocks change from the surface towards the center of earth. Which one do you think changes more regularly than others Pressure 7) Refraction and reflection dissipate seismic energy inside the earth real 8) Iceland is close to Greenland but geologically the two have little in common straightforward 9) Which of the following are types of convection cells in or on earth Ocean currents amp Boiling bowel movements in a pot of soup. 0) The suns radian energy drives the movement of our atmosphere aline 11) Earth is the centre of the universe Who Knows 12) Earth should be cooling off as primeval heat is lost to outer space simulated 13) Lord Klevin calculated mathematically that Earth is cooling off.His mathematics were correct dependable 14) Although interior parts of earth are shown as pretty coloured bands, heat distribution is much uniform Incorrect 15) Earth is comprised of the same material s and in more or less the same proportion as the sun Yes 16) Radiant energy received from the sun is the most important type in explaining continental drift False 17) The fact that S-waves are lost within the Earth is good evidence for a liquid outer core authorized 18) Method used by geologists in injecting the mantle for seismic studies is Bottom 19) Earth is a planet in the process of becoming a star Recent studies have indicated that it is heating up at the rate of a few degrees per century False 20) To date we have not been able to drill to the core, however we can see it in volcanic material False 21) Lord Kelvin has proved that earth is dying planet. It is cooling off relatively rapidly False 22) Canada is one of the coutries where solar winds can be seen True 23) By examining the geothermal gradient in deep wells, we can predict temperature at center of earth False 24) Various compositions of meteorites reflect Mantle of earth, whole earth, earths cruts.Oceanic crust of ea rth has a minimum thickness of about 5 KM The North American plate is moving away from the European one at a measurable but small distance per century True Mountains are shaped by both convection cells in the diagram True The floor of the Atlantic is widening why is there a ridge in the middle Volcanoes Iron-rich minerals in basaltic lava can give information on the Earths magnectic field at the time Volcanic eruption True Fundamental differences between the floors of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Different ages, different amounts of sediments, Different manganese mineralization Material from the mantle reaches the surface of the Earth along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge True Radiant energy received from the sun is the most important type in explaining continental drift True The repetition of two colurs indicate different lava flows indicats alternating lava flows with different paleomagnestism When seen in cross-section, continents look like thin rafts on the surface of the mantle Becau se continents are composed of lighter materials big before their geologic importance was discovered, paired bands of equal magnestism were recognized south of Iceland The navy during WWII The continents started migrating apart approximately 180 million years ago True In what ways is Atlantic Ocean spreading analogous to Antartic ice pack behaviour New ice is forming in cracks joins blocks of aged(a) ice amp There are convention currents in the water below There are a lot of thick sediments around the Mid-Atlantic Ridge False The suns radiant energy drives the movements of our atmosphere True P-Waves generated at one locality can be detected around the globe if the source is sufficient False The positive magnetic pole is in Canada and always has been False Fossil Fuels are usually found in rocks typical of ocean crust False The magnetic north pole lies in northern Canada TrueThe magnetic stripes south of Iceland were correctly interpreted as indicating the spreading of the ocean fl oor True If new mantle material is added to the crust in marine trenches, it must be consumed along the mid-Atlantic Ridge False Which of the following minerals from Bowens reaction series forms the highest temperature? Ca-plagioclase What is the crystalline structure of quartz None of the above Some mineral crystals have an internal structure similar to glass False Which one is the name of a major element found in quartz Silicon What is the crystalline structure of feldspar None of the above Atoms with the maximum number of electrons in their outer orbital Inert (non-reactive) What is the crystalline structure of biotite SheetSilicon is the most abundant elemen of the earths crust False Halite and calcite are both Relatively soft and soluble The resistance of a mineral to scratching is called hardness In a cooling magma, at what approximate temperature can silicon tetrahedral get close enough to share all their oxygens to form a framework silicate mineral 800 degrees. An electrical ly charged atom is called An Ion Isotopes are good to eat False What is the crystalline structure of the pyroxene group of minerals single chain Musovite has perfect cleavage in one direction True Mass and weight are synonymous False What is the crystalline structure of amphibole Double Chain Calcite has a hardness of 3 on Mohs scale TrueWhich of the following is the most common mineral in the earths crust Feldspar First orbital (energy level) in an atom can have a maximum of Two electrons The most common building block of silicate minerals Has 4 Oxygen atoms and 1 Silicon Atom In a metallic bond All electrons are shared Which of the following elements usually substitutes for Silicon in the tetrahedral of silicate minerals Aluminum The second orbit (energy level) in an atom can have a maximum of Eight electrons Cleavage occurs when a mineral breaks in random directions False Which type of bonding in minerals is the weakest Van Der Waals Which has the densest mineral Gold If an atom loses an eletron it becomes Positively chargedThe location of volcanoes on earth is near plate margins Volcanic eruptions occur primarily because of the voltatile content (gaseous components) of the magma True Which of the following statements is true It is possible to derive granite from a basaltic magma. Ashfalls may be useful in establishing Type of volcanism and paleowind direction. Columnar joints occur primarily Basaltic lava flows Which of the following statements are not correct Volcanoes are rarely more than chiliad metres high Most rocks found on the flanks of volcanoes have very small crystals True In Hawaii the ropy lava is called Pahoehoe Pumice is solidified crystalline forth TrueSilica rich lavas are viscous and lead to explosive erutpions True Pyroxene is the first mineral to cryztallize out of a very hot basaltic magma False Pumice is very light and may even float because it contains pulverized wood of the volcano False Which statement is correct The Hawaiian Isla nds are large shelter volcanoes Which rock does not belong with the others Rhyolite Shield volcanoes are not normally explosive True Magma may rise to the surface of earth partly because it is lighter than the surrounding rocks True The crystal size ofigneous rocks is affected primarily by Rate of cooling Calderas may be formed by collapse of the crater at the summit of a volcano true Which one is not a volcanic rock GabbroOne parent magma can produce several different types of igneous rocks True Discontinous crystallization sequence from Bowens reaction series is indicated by Olivine-pyroxene A Rock does not need to contain any minerals True Which of the following is a pyroclastic rock Tuff Humans have never observed the birth of a completely new volcano False Obsidian is a typical natural gas True Sills are Always younger than the surrounding rocks An igneous rock formed primarily of olivine and Ca-Rich Plagiosclase is called Basalt Granite does Not contain Ca-rich plagioclase G ranite is made up of the following group of minerals Quartz, amphiboles, K-Feldspar If cooling is faster, the size of crystals in igneous rocks Decreases The rocks of the ocean floor are mostly made of BasaltWhich of the following rocks commonly forms batholiths Granite Bowmens reaction series explains igneous textures False Most recent basaltic lava is found In the Atlantic Which one of the following instrustions has the largest volume of rocks Batholith As a basaltic magma cools and crystals form, the remaining liquid becomes silicon Magma may contain some solid crystals True The small holes in many volcanic rocks are due to trapped air bubbles A stratovolcano Can produce nuee ardente Which of the following statements is true Water vapour is a volcanic gas released during eruptions. To form magma, which of the following sources is NOT needed Solar energy Shield volcanoes None of the aboveThere is a large volcanic mountain range beneath the Atlantic Ocean Yes Obsidian can provide b eautiful gems False Carbon dioxide is an important volcanic gas True Igneous rocks form at about 1,000 degree C Which mineral is least likely to be associated with an explosive volcano Olivine Submarine (underwater) laval may develop Pillows Penetration by plant roots is the most important soil forming factor in tropical forest False Soil is a necessity for life on earth True what type of headstone would weather most quickly Marble The greater stability of minerals that are formed at the Earths surface is due to Increase covalent bonds Soil profile development is affected by many processes.Which one doesnt belong Meditation Minerals that form at lower temperature from a cooling magma are generally more stable in the weathering environment True Among other things the diagram shows a diamond being cut. Is this real weathering? Yes Snow can physically weather igneous rocks most effectively under which condition snow cant do this Soil develops pedogenic layers (horizons) due to Leachin g and translocation of material Soil profiles do not develop in artic regions False In what environment does chemical weathering predominate over mechanical weathering None of the above Wind is the only erosional medium in a desert environment False What is the main cause of the characteristics fractures of exfoliation dome Pressure release Amphiboles are so liquid at the earths surface that they can never be found in sedimentary rocks.False Why is quartz more resistant to wreathing than pyroxene It has more covalent bonds A soil profile develops from the bottom upward False Which rock would weather most quickly in a hot, humid environment Basalt In desert soils, net movement of material is downward. False Examples of weathering exsist in Ontario True Which of the following is not produced by the weathering of K-Feldspar Olivine What is the process involved when minerals lose water molecules from their crystalline structure Dehydration Granite undergoes frost shattering much more e asily than dolostone False Plant roots do not penetrate deep in the tropics True Weathering usually takes place in a closed system FalseChemical weathering invariably leads to angular fragments False Continental sedimentary rocks (those not formed in the sea) are formed from minerals mostly derived from The physical breakdown of igneous and metamorphic rocks Can Ice wedging, frost shattering, sandblasting co-exist Yes Together which particle would have the highest settling velocity More spherical intermediate particles Carbonates (limestone) dissolve preferentially in Freezing cold water Saltation Type of movement of sand grains Delta sequence as seen in a core, would show, from the bottom up clay-silt-sand Plane beds form in fast moving water when either sand or gravel is present True Diagnesis starts after the sediments have been deposited To generate clastic sediments weathering, transport and deposition must occur Carbonates are most likely to occur In shallow tropical seas The reat majority of limestones are formed skeletons of invertebratae organism and algae The maximum stream velocity in a river can be measured near surface and in the middle Which of the following is a thick deposit of composed mainly of invertebrate skeletons Reef In colonial corals the individual are called Polyps Carbonization is fossilization where little or no detail can be seen True Least likely to contain fossil molds of brachiopods Conglomerate Organisms that live on the bottom of the sea are called Benthon What properties of an organism make it a good paleoenvironmental indicator sharks and turtles Brachiopod has two shells of unequal size In which rocktype are fossil casts least likely to form Granite Fossilization occurs at high alititudes False Which of the following minerals does not form a cast Pyroxene Human species have been around for 1/1,000Dolphins and fish have similar external forms convergent evolution Fossil species are defined mainly on the basis of their phys ical appearance Which of the following has the best change of being fossilized An oyster Which organism has least likely to fossilize as a cast Worm The majority of coral reefs are built in warm seas because Their skeletons persist longer in warm waters Fossils which denote specific short periods of time are called Index fossils Paleozoic corals lived mainly in warm, shallow seas Evidence of organic activity is preserved in rocks as Coprolites, trace fossils and bioturbation Trace fossils include Tracks, feces, and burrowsWhich is the most important factor affecting preservation potential Rate of burial If a mold is filled with mineral material result is Cast What is the most common means of fossilizing plants Carbonization What is the most common material forming petrified woods Silica Trilobites first evolved in Cambrian Pelecypods are generally characterised by Two shells equal size, bilateral symmetry, powerful muscles What are the subdiviso ns of the geological time scale from longest to shortest Era, Period, epoch sedimentary rocks are never older than igneous rocks False A daughter element of uranium is Lead If a bed conformably overlies another it meansno time interval is missing between them What is the approxcimate age of the oldest known rock on earth 3. billion What is the gap in the stratigraphic record called Unconformity Why did lord grand underestimate the age of the earth radioactivity had not yet been discovered Living things contain A constant % of carbon 14 in their wander Which statement best describes the principle of uniformitariainsims the present is the key to the past Radiometric dates of sedimentary particles may not represent the true age of the deposit They are reworked from older rocks Principle of fossil zonation indicates that certain fossils occur Only certain geological periods What is the most common way of determining absolute age of a rock Radioactivity What is a paleosoil-An ancient soil Sedimentary rocks are most accura tely dated using Fossils In shallow water sediments there are many time gaps If strata are vertical tilting has occurredFour primary geological ears are Precambrian, paleozoic, mesozoi and Cenzsoic Relative age is determined mainly using fossils what is needed before doing this evolutionary sequence Where is carbon 14 primarily produced Earths atmosphere The evolutionary sequence of an organism is normally found by applying principle of superposition The limbs of a syncline soak towards the center of the fold Forces that cause folding can also force thrust faults Folding of rocks can occur at great depths only the Alps formed mainly as a result of continental collision An inactive continental margin is found in Nova Scotia The beds at the core of an aniticline are Oldest and bowed downward Denudation means eroding and exposing deep-seated rocksOlder rocks are generally exposed at the centre of the eroded anticline The miogeosyncline of a mountain chain is Thrust faults Strike-slip faults move mainly-Horizontal The deepest earthquakes occur at a depth of about 700 km Orogenesis The formation of mountains A joint is a fracture plane where motion has not occurred Mid-oceanic ridges are locations of Formation of new crust Where is the earths crust thickest Beneath mountainous regions The apls are higher than the Appalachians because they are younger Dip and strike are ways to measure deformed bed The average thickness of the oceanic crust is about 8km The crustal plates movement is measured in cm/year inactive continental margins have considerable sedimentation

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