Monday, April 1, 2019
Causes And Effects Of Child Abuse
Causes And Effects Of nipper call churl handle carcass a call attentionificant problem around the world. The reasons for boor misdirect atomic publication 18 diverse and tend to be different from a situation to an other(a). It is erect that nestlingren of different disabilities such(prenominal) as hearing, identifying and visual impairment ar at higher(prenominal) run a risk of being do by especially from their wish givers. Another cause is Low socio-economic status and high social reach which lead some people to demoralize drug and alcoholic beverage. Hence the rigor of alcoholism and drug clapperclaw increase the tendency to vilification others increases as well. Also it is clear that nipperren of young maturates argon more(prenominal) likely to be maltreat by females than elder sisterren who argon abused more by males. Moreover, the abusing childhood experience can be a cause for an heavy(p) to abuse children, especially if this adult suffered reject ion, maltreatment and vehemence in his or her childhood.The end effects of child abuse can be shown as somatogenic effect which range from small injuries to severe brain injury and even shoemakers last. Another effect is the psychological manifestation where the child may have disordered self esteem and depression. Furthermore, the social effects associated with unsuitable behaviors such as criminal behaviors and alcoholism.Causes and Effects of Child AbuseChild abuse is a major public health crisis. It affects children of all ages, colors, social classes and ethnic groups. The latest statistics estimate that more than 900,000 children ar victims of child maltreatment. Abuse occurs at all ages but is virtually common in junior children. Child abuse may manifest as hide injuries, superfluous trauma, head injury, or many other forms. (Tenney-Soeiro Wilson, 2004).In particular, there argon several(prenominal) causes for child abuse like in children with variety of disab ilities or behavioral problems who can increase maternal stress to the instant that causes child abuse. Moreover, low socio-economic status and high social stress are powerfully linked with abuse. Also a personal history of abuse and rejection may lead a person to abuse others. In addition, there are also certain and important effects of child abuse and betray on the personal, psychological, and behavioral development of children. Thus, these consequences affect the victims themselves and society they live in.Causes of Child AbuseTo begin with, there are several causes that lead to child abuse and inadvertence. First of all, children with physical disabilities, learning disabilities, visual and hearing impairments, low birth weights, and physical health problems are at slightly change magnitude risk of being physically abused. Also prematurely born and chronically ill children are at same risk level. In other words, children who for one reason or other place stress on psycholo gically vulnerable parents are most at higher risk of abuse. Children with disabling conditions can increase stress on parents because such children are difficult to manage specially among inexperienced parents. Children that show significant cognitive impairments, or those that barely communicate, or who are limited in mobility receivable to disability can be considered as chronic stressor for child aid providers (Howe, 2005).Low socio-economic status and high social stress also dramatic play a role for physical abuse of children. Here the children usually arrive from parents with typically poor educational achievements. some(prenominal) social conditions raises the risk for child abuse and these conditions include poor housing condition , unemployment ,large family size , unsoundness and the presence of new baby in the family .Physical abusers of very young children are more likely to be female, while abusers of older children are predominantly, though not exclusively, male. However, there is a tendency to overestimate maternal abuse and underestimate paternal or male abuse (Corby,2000). Whatever the age of the child is, most of child death occurs as a ensue of male violent behavior. Parents with depression and a genius disorder, and drug or alcohol abusers, are at higher risk of harming their children physically. In fact the more severe the alcoholism, the more likely violence is to occur. Parents who are alcohol abusers or with mental problems are typically subjected their children to prolonged physical abuse and dribble.Last but not least, it is perhaps not surprising to learn that the childhoods of many physically black parents turn out to have been merciless and loveless. Children that are killed or murdered are more likely to be killed by their mother if she suffered from some sort of maternal rejection or neglect during her childhoods. Parents who extremely suffered from family arguments , witnessed home violent behavior, physical maltreatm ent, absence of warmth, cruel punishment, and parental mental health problems were at higher risk of being vulturous and intrusive with their own children. Mothers who were physically abused in childhood are more likely to react to helplessness and need with hostility, while sexually abused mothers appear more likely to react to their children by withdrawing.And Crittenden, go overing 35 years of research in the field of physical abuse, cogitated that parents at the dangerous extremes of otherwise common child-rearing practices are those who live in the most dangerous circumstances and have themselves experienced the most danger in the past (Crittenden, 1998). It can be concluded that all physically abused children dumbfound physically offensive parents themselves, the majority of physically abusive parents were themselves physically abused and felt neglected during their childhoods. Abused parents that do not abuse their children are more likely to had support from their partn er, had a positive family with an adult (for example, a teacher or a relative) during childhood, or certain some form of therapy during adolescence. The majority of abusive mothers writing being poorly beaten in childhood by their own mother, while roughly half say their father attacked them. Moreover, children who witness violence between their concern providers are more likely to become violent and difficult to manage. such behavior simply adds to the mothers stress and tendency to deal with her children intemperately.In addition, if abused children become parents at a relatively young age, their ability to persist available and responsive under the stresses and strains of looking after their own children is limited. For example, physically abusive mothers were exposed to more stressors and less emotional support in the previous year compared with mothers who had not physically abused their children. A review of theoretical approaches shows that an abusive parents own abus ive childhood is believed to be a more important factor for predicting child physical abuse than warring models outside the parents personal network (Coohey Braun, 1997). From the same review we can conclude which history of violence experience is best to predict if the mother is more likely to abuse her children or not. Its put up that assaults by three types of long-familiar network members (her own mother, a previous partner, and current partner) increased the hazard that a mother would physically abuse her children. Being abused by ones own mother dominated the effects of all other predictors. The sulfur most important probability effect was a current abusive partner (Coohey Braun, 1997).Effects of Child AbuseAs a government issue of the above causes, there are certain effects that might will from child abuse. Research now shows that the physical, psychological, and behavioral consequences of child abuse and neglect impact not just the child and family, but the community as a whole (Iannelli, 2007).To start with, the physical effects range from minor injuries to severe brain damage and even death. Physical abuse in infants and children can lead to brain dysfunction and sometimes to death. Most death victims of abuse and neglect are under age 5. In 1991, an estimated 1,383 children died from abuse or neglect 64 percent of these deaths were attributed to abuse and 36 percent to neglect (McCurdy Daro, 1992). A child does not need to be knocked on the head to get brain injuries. Its has been indicated that infants who are shaken vigorously by the extremities or shoulders may sustain intracranial and intraocular bleeding with no sign of external head trauma. Thus early neglectful and physically abusive practices have destructive consequences for their small sufferers. Physically abused children have been found to have more mild neurologic signs, serious physical injuries, and skin markings and scars than their non-abused peers (Kolko, Moser, Weldy, 1 990). Not only is that but for most abused children fractures common. Multiple fractures and fractures in different stages of healing are also findings that may indicate abuse and emphasize the need for obtaining full skeletal surveys on children under 2 years of age when abuse is suspected (Hyden Gallagher, 1992). In addition, burns theme for approximately 10% of all child abuse and have a mortality rate of 30% (McLoughlin Crawford, 1985).For most abused children burns are common and well marked especially on the dorsal diorama of the hand buttocks and perineum. Children who have been sexually maltreated, and some who have been physically neglected, have shown discriminating sexuality and signs of genital manipulation. For the most part, serious biologic effect of child and adolescent sexual abuse is the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and syphilis.Furthermore, abused children show higher levels of depression, hopelessness, and lower egotism especially in physically and sexually abused children. The longer stop consonant of physical abuse the greater emotional difficulties are found in those children. Also anxiety symptoms such as fearfulness, phobias, insomnia and nightmares may manifest in such cases. These symptoms may prolong and produces serious mental health consequences such as Difficulty establishing and maintaining relationships, eating disorders and suicidal attempts.What is more is that physical violence and unsociable behaviors are among the most consistently recognized childhood outcomes of physical child abuse. Sufferers of child abuse and neglect are at higher risk for criminal behavior and running away. Considerably less is cognize about connections between childhood abuse and other problem behaviors, such as teenage pregnancy, alcohol use and drug abuse, self-destructive behavior, and suicide. Many children who suffer from the psychological effects of child abuse often become child abusers themselves or can becom e perpetrators of violent crimes. Many inmates in our jails and prisons have been victims of child abuse (Dunning, 2004) .Alcohol and drug use are twain il reasoned for teenagers, creating a natural confusing of alcohol or shopping mall total use with criminal behavior. For example, alcoholics often attempt other destructive behaviors, including suicide attempts (Schuckit, 1993). Diagnoses of alcoholism are complicated by the presence of antisocial personality disorder, which in turn, may include components of criminal behavior and sexual promiscuity.To sum up, there are multiple causes that lead to child abuse and neglect. In addition, it appears that there are dangerous effects that results from child abuse. Therefore, a number of primary and secondary strategies can be taken to prevent the several types of abuse and child abuse consequences. The primary strategies include parents training on parenting skills and dealing with disabled children, children education on self defens e and report of any type of abuse. The secondary efforts should concentrate on investigation of child abuse reports by child protection agencies, clinical treatment of physical and psychological injuries, family counseling, self-help services, the provision of goods and services such as relief care, legal action against the abuser, and removal of the child or the offender from the home.