Friday, April 5, 2019

Approaches to Treatment and Therapy: Case Study

Approaches to Treatment and Therapy Case StudyCase Study 1 (Phillip)BackgroundPhillip is displaying duple adverse psychological symptoms that would best fit the diagnosis of obsessive impelled disorder (OCD). Specifically Phillip is a despotic washer as he maintains a high level of clean direct contrastss, having showers up to three generation a day. He also only eats frozen food in order to distract contamination and organises his furniture, making sure that they ar all perpendicular to the wall. These compulsions ar repetitive, purposeful behaviours designed to pr levelt or reduce misgiving (De Silva, 2003). Some, if non most, of Phillips anxiety arises from the inquisitive model of stabbing his go which has become a clinical obsession be app atomic number 18nt movement he believes that the estimation has personal signifi potfulce and meaning. This may be because Phillip has an inflated smell out of certificate of indebtedness and so believes that he is responsible for preventing the officious belief from actually happening (Rheaume et al., 1994). This has led to Phillip avoiding people, his Mother especially, tho this has only increased the frequency and severity of his compulsions. It appears that Phillip is stuck in a brutal bicycle of his obsessions and his compulsions feeding off one another and so intervention allow be needful in order to help him.Theoretical FrameworkThere are two central aspects of OCD, the cognitive aspects which include intrusive thoughts, obsessions and cognitive distortions, and the behavioural aspect of compulsions. In cognitive theory, intrusive thoughts (e.g. I deficiency to stab my mother) do automatically and usually have no emotional significance but can run into on significance, depending on the context in which intrusions happen (England Dickerson, 1988). Such thoughts are very green and have been reported to occur in almost 90% of the population (Rachman de Silva, 1978) but once an item-by- item deems these thoughts as significant it can cause distress and the belief that they are personally responsible for preventing the thought from actually happening. The distress cause by high levels of perceived responsibility has been plant in multiple studies (Shafran, 1997 roper Rachman 1975) as obsessional patients felt a lot to a greater extent uncomfortable performing checking rituals when they were on their profess and calmer when the therapist was in that respect as the patient felt less responsibility. This sense of responsibility is associated with both worry (Wells Papageorgiou, 1998) and OC symptoms (Salkovskis et al., 2000a). Specifically, the swallowing of responsibility is associated with a significant drop in discomfort and need to check (Lopatka Rachman, 1995). unmatchable explanation for inflated responsibility is the thought-action fusion (TAF) theory which suggests that obsessions occur in people who believe that idea intimately a disturbing event i s the same as doing it and that having an intrusive thought is morally similar to acting on said thought (Rachman, 1993 Shafran, Thordarson Rachman, 1996). TAF is an example of persuasion errors outlined by Beck (1976) which are used by most people all the time but can be detrimental when thought process errors become central to thought processes (Nisbett Ross, 1980). The most prevalent thinking error in those with OCD is that having any act everywhere the outcome means that you are responsible for the outcome.Due to the distress caused by the idea of intrusive thoughts, individuals aim to squander the anxiety caused through mental reassurance and overt compulsions (such as washing and checking) (Salkovskis, 1985). However attempts to neutralise the thought can sustain and potentially increase responsibility beliefs and the occurrence of intrusive thoughts. A commonalty type of neutralising behaviour which is present in Phillips case is compulsive washing. Almost 50% of pa tients with OCD are compulsive washers (APA, 1994) and it is even more common in childhood cases of OCD like Phillips with 85% of preadolescent patients displaying washing rituals (Swedo et al., 1989b). It has been suggested that one of the main attributes of compulsive washers is perfectionism (Tallis, 1996). Tallis claims that most compulsive washers do not prove such behaviour because they are concerned approximately contamination or illness, instead they are more concerned with maintaining their environment perfectly and thus feeling fully in control. Research has found that at that place is a significant link between perfectionism and OCD in general, not just in compulsive washing (Bouchard et al., 1999). As Phillip appears to be displaying the perfectionist personality trait, it is important to consider this in therapy.As perfectionism has been found to correlate with depressive symptoms (Enns Cox, 1999 Flett et al., 1991) it is doable that a negative clime may be a fac tor in Phillips thinking errors. The mood-as-input theory (Martin et al., 1993) suggests that people use their mood as a factor to decide whether or not they have completed a task. When people are in a incontrovertible mood they are more likely to take their affect as a sign that they are progressing in a task and achieving more (Hirt et al., 1996). Whereas those in a negative mood experience the opposite and interpret their mood to mean that they havent progressed enough and so must continue with the task (Schwarz Bless, 1991 Frijda, 1988). This may occur because people in negative moods have been found to process tasks more extensively than those in positive moods (Mackie Worth, 1989). This is a significant theory for Phillips case as individuals with OCD tend to use internal states that are difficult to achieve such as having a gut feeling to help them decide when to let on compulsive behaviour (Salkovskis, 1998). They therefore have stricter personal requirements for making conclusions and so what should be an automatic decision becomes a strategic one and the strict criteria have to be met before anxiety is reduced and the compulsive behaviour can stop (Salkovskis et al., 2000a).Problem FormulationPhillip presents all of the issues outlined in the theoretical example which will act as the foundations for intervention. Figure 1 shows the main aspects of Phillips case and highlights his rules for living and the cycle in which he is trapped.From the information given in Phillips case, it appears as though the bottom line of his psychology is I have to have full control over every aspect of my bread and butter which may have been caused by undemocratic parenting (Timpano et al., 2010) or childhood trauma (Lochner et al., 2002) which have both been found to significantly correlate with OCD symptoms. Whilst there isnt enough information about Phillips childhood to hypothesize if such things have happened to him, these are factors to bear in mind during interference. This strict bottom line in Phillips life has led to certain maladaptive rules of living including his perfectionism (control over actions) and inflated responsibility (control over thoughts and feelings). He also has a generally negative mood as an input to his thought processes because he can never fully satisfy the strict standards that he sets himself.Then, when Phillip was a teenager he began experiencing intrusive thoughts about stabbing his mother. Such intrusive thoughts are not usually enough to trigger anxiety but due to Phillips rules of living, he finds personal meaning in the thought and feels responsible for preventing the thought from happening. This triggers anxiety and so he seeks to neutralise the thought through compulsive washing, arranging furniture and socially isolating himself. When these neutralising behaviours reduce his anxiety it reinforces Phillips thinking errors, his rules of living and his bottom line. Thus, when his anxiety is triggere d again he repeats the behaviour and so Phillip is trapped in a cycle of his compulsions and obsessions reinforcing one another.Figure 1. Problem shaping flow chart for PhillipTreatment InterventionPhillips intercession can start with cognitive therapy aiming to pore and modify his thinking errors and inflated sense of responsibility. At the same time as this Phillip can take part in group therapy designed specifically to treat perfectionists. After these treatments and once Phillip feels specify to, he can move on to exposure and response prevention (ERP) using virtual reality to imitate dirty and contaminated environments. This will help him to control his compulsions and get him out of the obsessive-compulsive cycle.For Phillip, cognitive therapy will start by focussing on the distinction between intrusive thoughts and his negative appraisal of those thoughts. As outlined by Menzies and de Silva (2003), this begins by asking patients to reflect upon the last time they had an intrusive thought and what their behavioural reaction was to this thought. Phillip will then be encouraged to recognise that it was not the thought itself that cause his subsequent behaviour but how he interpreted the thought. It is important that the client records the distinction between his intrusions and their appraisal before moving on to further intervention as it may otherwise confuse them. Next, Phillip taught about how common intrusive thoughts can be, to help him dismiss any feelings of shame or guilt that he may be feeling. It is suggested by Salkovskis (1999) that patients should be encouraged to view intrusive thoughts as a potentially positive and useful occurrence that can help with problem solving and foresight. The goal of this is not to bear a focussing their intrusions but to help them feel more positive by normalising them. Phillip is also encouraged to modify his responsibility appraisals in order to reduce his inflated sense of responsibility. Van Oppen Arn tz (1994) found that even when people with OCD understand how unlikely it is that their intrusive thoughts will become reality, they continue to show compulsive behaviours because they feel a sense of responsibility to stop it from happening. Van Oppen Arntz (1994) suggest creating a pie chart with patients that they can divide up to rede the importance of factors that may contribute to a feared outcome. Once Phillip assigns percentage values to severally factor he will be able to visualise that his role of responsibility is much smaller than he primarily thought. This technique will help Phillip to reassess the overestimation of his responsibility and realise the importance of other robustious factors.Whilst undergoing cognitive therapy Phillip will join group therapy to help him with his perfectionism. Ferguson and Rodway (1994) outlined a group therapy programme for perfectionism base on cognitive-behavioural theory. This programme will aim to help Phillip understand the pr oblems that can arise from perfectionism and what strategies can be used in order to change his perfectionist way of thinking. The therapy will also be based on the outline provided by Kutlesa and Arthur (2007) which applies a psycho-educational approach to perfectionism, using interpersonal theory (Yalom,1995) as the psychological serving which will ask Phillip and others in the group to focus on the present rather than worrying about the future. The educational component will use elements of cognitive-behavioural theory (Ellis, 1991 Beck, 1993) to teach the group about the thinking errors complex in perfectionism and skills to discern with and change these thinking errors.Once Phillip has made progress in both treatments and feels ready for the next step he will move on to ERP as a treatment for his compulsive behaviour. Firstly, Phillip will be steadily and gradually exposed to environmental triggers. He will write a list of situations in which he could be contaminated, starte d with the one that makes him the least anxious and working his way up to the worst. Most ERP treatments ask participants to experience these situations either through images or in vivo but a unused method of virtual reality (VR) is being used in the treatment of OCD and it has been found to be impressive (Kim et al., 2009 Belloch et al., 2014). Using VR, Phillip will then be exposed to the items on his list one by one, experiencing each one repeatedly until anxiety is completely reduced and Phillip is ready for the next item. Another aspect of this treatment is response prevention which aims to help patients control their compulsions in advance of triggering events (Meyer et al., 1974). This involves strategies such as using substitute(a) behaviours and modifying compulsive rituals which can be integrated into the VR exposure. This treatment aims to expose Phillip to his triggers in a safe way reducing his anxiety for those situations and learning to control his compulsions in t he process.EvaluationUsing cognitive and behavioural treatments unneurotic is crucial for Phillips intervention as they both deal with either the obsessions and the thinking errors or the compulsions but not both. If only one of these elements is dealt with then it is likely that the other will return. Whilst cognitive therapy has been found to be potentially effective on its own (Cottraux et al., 2001) studies have found that when ERP is combined with cognitive therapy it produces lower dropout rates, greater general coping and decreased obsessive-compulsive symptoms (Kyrios et al., 2001 Freeston et al., 1997). A major aspect of Phillips case that wasnt dealt with in cognitive-behavioural therapy that was not covered was his perfectionism. Research has found that CBT doesnt significantly reduce perfectionist symptoms (Egan Hine, 2008) whereas Richards etal. (1993) found lower scores on perfectionism and depression scales and increased levels of self-reported wellbeing and self-es teem in response to group therapy. The internalisation of VR is a modern approach to ERP but it is one that is becoming very popular in the treatment of many anxiety disorders (Kim et al., 2009) and has been found to be as effective as in vivo exposure (Belloch et al., 2014). nonpareil aspect that wasnt addressed in Phillips treatment is that of his family. As mentioned earlier it is possible that authoritarian parenting (Timpano et al., 2010) or childhood trauma (Lochner et al., 2002) could be involved in Phillips case as these are common causes of childhood OCD. There are family-based therapies that are shown to be effective in these cases (Lebowitz, 2013) but there wasnt enough information about Phillips family to make such assumptions. If, in therapy, similar issues are revealed then family-based therapy may be very useful for Phillip. Also, little attention was given to biological factors even though pharmacological treatments are very effective in the treatment of OCD (Abramo witz, 1997 de Haan et al., 1997). This is because it would only tackle Phillips symptoms whereas cognitive therapy with ERP and group therapy will help Phillip to understand his rules of living, his bottom line, and how to potentially change or cope with this.References

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