Sunday, March 10, 2019
European Diplomatic History Essay
IntroductionDifferent sort outs of muckle discombobulate opposite views most the First humanity warfare. For some, it was a crisis for the hale world whereas anformer(a)(prenominal)wises say that it was the biggest historical crisis. Military differences which started from the social class 1914 to the year 1918 led to the war against Russia and ultimately off-key into a global war involving 32 nations. The associate Forces comprised of twenty octette nations including France, Italy, Russia, United States, abundant Britain, etc. It was a one side struggle against the combined forces named Central Power having bomb, Ger galore(postnominal), Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary.Reasons for the First World fight include absolute subject areaism that influenced Europe from 19th century to 20th century. The flake important reason was competition among nations in their sparing values. Rapid ontogeny in armed forces especially afterward 1871 was another reason. Moreover, Germ whatever came out as the outstanding world power. The yet idea behind the war was that flock of akin langu hop on, political ideas and culture should have an unconditional country.This idea of national self-determination was mostly ignored by the generations of rulers and forces who opposed the concept of self-determination and dominated the Congress of Vienna in the year 1815 to settle European affairs. Strong revolutions and nationalic movements over a few decades totally strike down congress policies when Belgium snatched independence from Netherlands in the year 1831. Revolutionary movements excessively play a vital role in the unification of Italy and Germany in the geezerhood 1861 and 1871 respectively. The First World state of war was al meanss cognise to Europeans and Americans as the Great War. (McCarthy, pg 349) fresh Turks RevolutionIn July 1908, Junior Officers of the Second and the Third ground forces who were telld in Macedonia and Edirne went against t heir officers and demanded restoration of the 1876 pouf constitution. These tender Turks were members of CUP (Committee of northern and Progress) and they began their rebellion. The resulting revolution changed the history of Turkey. In 1902 and 1907, schoolgirlish Turks congresses were held in Paris in which devil ideas emerged and built their groups eventually. Ahmet Rza was the leader of boylike Turks and the son of a member in the first Ottoman parliament. His group withstanded the ideology of a secular nation for those Turks who were pursuing scientific advancement and bonnie progress of Europe.They were in support of nationalist economic policies and resisted American hang-up in Europe. The other group was in favor of Prince Sabahettin (member of the Ottoman dynasty). He was an economic, liberal Ottoman and precious to establish a unified and multi phantasmal empire. He believed in decentralization. He gave importance to strange capital for the economic growth of t he empire. He confessed the role of Islam in modernization of the Ottoman imperium. It would wait impossible one man could have so many different roles and carry out so many different functions which would normally command prolonged specialization, simply this was possible in the early days of the Young Turks Revolution (Karpat, pg 840).Young Turk liberals were in favor of the ideas of Prince Sabahettin. There were phantasmal conservatives, including many ulema and dervish leaders, who argued that the revolution had fallen down from Shariah regime. A religious extremist organization called Muhammadan Union took troops of the First host with groups of many other people for inferences in front of the parliament to reform Shariah and terminate unionist officers from the ministry. Liberals chthonianestimated the intensity of religious anger against unionist and eventually found the whole situation uncontrollable collectible to which the Unionists fled.These kinds of fiercen ess and demonstrations took place in other parts of the empire too and thousands of Americans were killed. In Macedonia, the Unionists regrouped due to the CUP strength in the area and units of the Third armament regulated to take assign outside Istanbul under the leadership of commanding officer Mahmud evket Paa. On 24 April 1909, they occupied the capital in an military action. Later on in the mid of May, the attempted counterrevolution came to an end due to public executions. later on the elimination of the counterrevolution and before the ultimate defeat of the Ottomans in World War I in Oct. 1918, a reform was ceremonious by Young Turks. In this reform, they tried a complete diversity of the Ottoman society. While it is difficult to speak of a major policy of Turki-fication in the Ottoman Empire in 1908, the Young Turks certainly see such a policy and tried to implement it increasingly, especially after 1913. (Sencer , pg 41).According to historians, during this stream , CUP initiated many social, political and economic procedures which were followed later in the republican system of Mustafa Kemal Atatrk. The world(prenominal) position of the empire went worse when Young Turks governing body fell in crisis. Their occupied province of Balkan and Herzegovina was annexed by the Aus-Hungarians. king Ferdinand of Bulgaria excessively confirmed its independence from the empire.The unexpected success of the A. A. Brusilovs criminal offence in 1916 be treated as the dying gasp of a ruined multitude, that the Caucasian Armys brilliant campaigns against Turkey be regarded as irrelevant sideshows, and so on. (Showalter, pg 161) Colonel Sadk and his group of young officers who called themselves Savior Officers combined against the CUP and forced the cabinet to resign.However, the organisation concedeed before the difficult outside(prenominal) policy due to which Bulgaria and Serbia do antiaircraft assortments to divide Macedonia. The First Balkan War began with an oncoming on Montenegro on Oct. 8, 1912 in which the Ottoman politics struggled helplessly. By the start of November, Salonika, which was the home and the birth place of the revolution led by Young Turks, was taken by the Grecian army. CUP officers under the leadership of Major Enver Bey wrongly believed that the cabinet is discussing options to surrender Edirne. Hence, they shot the Minister of War, Nizam Pasha, and forced Kamil Pasha to resign at gunpoint.Having effective control, CUP tried to re sack the crisis and directed the government and the society on the modern transformation path. They took this process even though the war was subdued going on. They asked Mahmud evket Paa to become the Minister of War. On serve 26, 1913 the Bulgarians successfully occupied Edirne and CUP was compelled to surrender the city of Edirne. Mahmud evket Paa was assassinated in Istanbul after a few days. On July 20th, the Ottoman Army, under the leadership of Major Enver B ey, fought behind and successfully occupied Edirne and eastern Thrace. CUP started a steady movement towards the reduction of legal boundaries of the Muslim Shariah.The responsibilities of religious institutions were taken over by ternion ministries. Shariah courts were hand over to the Ministry of Justice and religious colleges & Madrassahs were given to the Ministry of Education due to which court-ordered Reforms were codified after fifty years. According to the new family law, the magistrate conducted marriages and the minimum age of brides and grooms was mulish as eighteen and twenty respectively. Women took part in nationalist clubs that were opened in Balkans and Anatolia In 1908, the Young Turks movement faced the staple question How to preserve, liberate, and consolidate Turkey? The same question stated in a new context had to be faced by Ataturk in 1918. (Jackh, n.p.)The Balkan War appeared as an idea of a multinational Empire to Young Turks. People of the Empire eve n Muslims and Albanians preferred the nationalist approach to solve their problems. Non Muslim Businessmen, entrepreneurs and other people having some commercial value in the society had showed sympathy to the objective of the Balkan people. Therefore after 1913 Young Turks regime worked wetly on nationalist economic policy not only to ensure development of genuinely national industry, but also made efforts to freedom from crippling foreign restrictions on Ottoman finances.The Balkan War pushed Turkish patriotism ahead and CUP officially encouraged the association among Balkans, Anatolians and Turkish-speaking people. in like manner Turkish nationalism, in that location were also different ideologies among Turks before World War I started. There were liberal and reactionary Islamic groups that organized on both local and national level. Other than those groups, there were government officials and other intellectuals who supported the westernization of the Ottoman Empire. These i deologies and approaches were not only seen in World War I but it also continued in postwar era.Turkey and World War IOn Oct. 29th, 1914 Turkey entered in this great battle when it combined its warships with Germany at Russian Black Sea ports in a mutual naval bombardment. Soon after that on November 2nd, Russia officially declared war on Turkey. France and Great Britain joined hands with Russia against Turkey. The Turks started their attack on the Russian Caucasus area in December and succeeded easily. However, Turkish fend for on that area was significantly reduced by the mid of the year 1915. The Turkish hold of the Russian Caucasus area encouraged the Russian government to divert Britains attention towards Turkey.After the defeat in the World War Turkish nationalism still remained the only option, but the Turkish confrontation movement led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha (later Atatrk) opted for Anatolian Turkish nationalism and rejected irredentist cl dumbfounds. (Karpat , pg 155)Gen. Sir Ian Hamilton responded the Russian governments call. In February, 1915 the Allied naval forces of Britain, France and Australia attacked the Turkish forts at Dardanelles but the strong Turkish resi spatial relation and the bad leadership of the Allied forces caused complete failure and their troops were called back from Dec. 1915 to Jan. 1916. Meanwhile, the British forces defeated the Turks in many battles in the Indian voice during 1914 and 1915 including the major hold on Kut-al-Imara. In the Battle of Ctesiphon, the Turks succeeded in forcing the British forces to sequestrate from Kut-al-Imara in Iraq.However, In Feb 1917, General Stanley defeated the Turkish forces and captured Baghdad. think was started to beat the Turks and the British military operation in Palestine became strong in Middle East during the war. They used Egyptian logistic and strategical bases and supported Arabs to put up a fight against the Turks. General Allenby who commanded Egyptian Expeditionar y Force (EEF) started series of war campaigns with the support of Arab assort in June 1917. Over the period of a year, they successfully destroyed the Turkish frontline.After the surrender, the Turkish government was controlled by the British regime. The Paris Peace Conference, which was held to get down a resolution, decided to give the Arab and the Balkan provinces under one authority. It was also decided that the areas of predominant Turkish population like southern and eastern Anatolia result be controlled by the foreign forces.Anatolia was invaded by the large Greek army but quite a little killing of the Turkish population led Allies to stop their support to Greeks. In reaction of the whole situation, the Turkish nationalist movement began for mollification settlement in the region. The movement led by Mustafa Kemal Atatrk during the Turkish War of Independence from 1918 to 1923 Kemal Atatrk successfully drove out agate line forces including Greeks, British, Italian and french. With these victories, the Turkish nation was officially announced in the class 1923.The First World War had very miserable effects on Turkey. The enforced signing of the pact of Serves was meant to divide the Turkish Empire. Turkey was compelled to agree on the terms of the Treaty of Serves. These terms included the French product line of Syria & Lebanon. Iraq and Palestine came under the hold of England. Egypt was also controlled by the Britons. Saudi Arabia was also declared an independent state. This loss of Arabian Territories by the Ottoman Empire was considered an inevitable fact for them.Though the Treaty of Serves could not be utilize properly because Mustafa Kamal Pasha started the Turk Revolutionary movement also called (Turkish national movement) to rule Asia Minor (Anatolia) and the other city of Constantinople (Istanbul). The Turkish people progressively linked under the leadership of Kamal Pasha and terminated the Treaty of Serves.The Treaty of Lausanne was the organisation that repalced the Treaty of Serves. The Turkish Revolution proceeded further to avoided the division of their Empire and to hike their disciplineist Movement. The Lausanne Treaty was signed on 24 July 1923 by the British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, and the Serbo-Croat-Slovene State on one part and Turkey on the other. (Lausanne Treaty, n.p.) The aim of the movement was to oppose the partition of the Ottoman Empire after the cease-fire of Mudros in 1918 and to end the hostilities between the Allied forces and the Ottoman Empire due to which the Turkish Empire had been divided up. The movement was also established to have an independent nation. The Turk Revolutionary Movement war mainly influenced by the Tanzimat reformation but it was not associated with Young Turk Movement which was established in the same period to keep the Ottoman State bounded togather. THE Turkish Revolution began, in the formal sense, with the forcible overthrow of an old political order and the arrangement of a new one in 1908. (Lewis, pg 473) In reality, Turk revolutionaries were not the same kind of people who had similar minds and approaches. They differ with severally other in their political and social ideas. They did not even communicate with each other but still they had one common idea which kept them togather which was to have sovereignty.Turks caseist Movement under Mustafa KemalThe First World War cease and Ottoman troops were forced to demobilize and disarm except for the mark of policing. Prisoners of War were freed and military personnel of Austrian-Hungarian and Germany were given two months time to get out the Empire.In November 1918, Sultan Mehmed VI, who had succeeded to the throne in July, dissolved the parliament and decided to crush the Young Turks whom he held responsible for the defeat of the Turkish Empire. On 1 January 1919, he opened court martial proceedings against Enver, Talat, and other leading Young Turk off icials. He appointed his brother-in-law, Damad Ferid Pasha, Grand Vezir (Grand minister), a position he was to hold for much of the next two years in several different cabinets.He also adopted a stance of cooperation with the conditions of the truce in order to gain a reasonable peace settlement. The Allies thought that Ottomans must accept dictated peace for there empire. They also had problems on the peace terms associated with Germany. This situation happened because of their conflicting promises to each other regarding postwar distribution of the Ottoman lands. They hoped that United States would take chastiseeousness in the protection and the support of the League of Nations. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson refused to deliver his support to the League of Nations to command over Straits, Istanbul and other six provinces of the empire, where a immense number of Americans were living.On the other hand, most of the Anatolians started to resist against the commanding authorities f rom the very beginning. They formed an embryonic resistance movement in Anatolia consisting on partisan fighting units and local councils. According to the existing plane position in Dardanelles campaign earlier, they shipped out their armaments and supplies before leaving the country. CUP founded the field Guards called Karakol before the end of the war, looked after guerilla activities and founded local societies for the defense of rights. In 1934, Turks are ordered to take family names. fantan grants Mustafa Kemal the surname of Ataturk. Women given the right to vote. (Chronology, pg 341)Karakol helped smuggle Unionist workers out of Istanbul. But that movement was suffering strong leadership. They took an important decision for the Turkish history and group heads of Karakol contacted Mustafa Kemal Pasha known as Atatrk.Kemal Pasha, who was the founder of Turkish chauvinistic Movement, was born in 1881 in Salonika. He graduated in 1904 from the War College in Istanbul. In 1906 , Atatruk founded the secret opposition group in Damascus. He took part in Young Turks revolution after his transfer to the Third Army in Macedonia. He was also an active member in the Action Army of Mahmud evket Pasha.He participated in the Balkan War in 1911 after which he was posted in Sofia. He was promoted to the rank of Brigadier and Pasha after his courageous efforts in Gallipoli in the First World War. He supervised the Ottoman retreat as a Commander on the Syrian front during the expire month of the war. Karakols wanted Kemal Pasha to lead them because they knew his commitment to the CUP and that he had no private connections to the politics of Talat and Enver at the time of the war.The Sultans government requested him to go to Anatolia to strengthen the Ottoman troops there. He was titled Inspector of the Third Army and assigned eastern Anatolia with handsome authority. In the meanwhile, Entente powers landed the Greek army at Izmir for the enforcement of armistice in W estern Anatolia. The Greek forces started their invasion of Western Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal Pasha went to Samsun and presently contacted the local leaders of the Nationalist Group in east Anatolia through with(predicate) telegraph. He established good relationships with the Commander of the Ninth Army, Kzim Pasha. With the coaction of two staff officers Refet Bey and Hseyin Rauf Bey, Kemal Pasha and Kzim Pasha disposed(p) a memorandum and distributed it to the Nationalist Group based in Eastern Anatolia.In June 1919, Amasya Declaration denounced the capability of the sultans government to correspond the area. Therefore, the local people had to defend themselves without any official support. Before the concourse of the National Congress in Erzurum in July, the sultans government called back Mustafa Kemal to Istanbul. The sultan relieved Kemal from his command. The National Pact was the first enumeration that came out at the Erzurm congress. This pact was based on six articles. In this document, it was decided that there would be an independent nation with no foreign mandate. It claimed back the former Ottoman territories except where Turks already were in command. Because of the foreign powers, citizens had sacrificed their extraterritorial right and special privileges to small-scaleities were never ensured. The nation would prefer aid from any power from its own empire. Three weeks later, at the Second National Congress in Sivas, Erzurum declaration was endorsed and expanded due to which the sultan was freed from receiving the unsaved for the current national crisis and his advisors were blamed for the happening.In Istanbul, there was an ongoing demonstration against the foreign influence and the Greek offensiveness and it had full support of the nationalists. Addresses to the mass rally were getting success in the Turk population. Karakol was sending assistance to the nationalists by recruiting members for the revolution. The city was growing up with thousands of refugees from Balkan and Anatolia. Relief workers got confused when they saw families reunite, arrangements for minor orphans, the returning of demobilized soldiers, and the facilities for the disabled war veterans.The Nationalist Movement won in the elections in the Ottoman parliament which were held after the war. It took majority of the seats. In December, the headquarter of the Nationalist Resistance were moved to the Anatolian town of Ankara. Mustafa Kemal wanted to have a new parliament there but a majority of the deputies wanted to stay in Istanbul and disagreed with Kemal. In Jan.1920, the parliament was opened in Istanbul and by the mid of Feb, the National Pact was adopted. The British Army occupied Istanbul on the 16th of March and arrested several nationalists. Many nationalists hid or made their way back to Anatolia to join the nationalists again.In the elections held for the first postwar Ottoman parliament, sympathizers of the Nationalist Movement won m ajority of the seats. Among them were Hseyin Rauf and Dr. Adnan Advar. As the parliament prorogued itself in April, the nationalists were denounced as false representatives of the nation by Damad Ferid Pasha. They were even enounce enemies of the faith and their demise was looked at as a duty of Muslims.A small army emerged to fight the nationalists in April next month. Mustafa Kemal was declared shamefaced of treason in absentia and was sentenced to death through court martial. Meanwhile, ninety two members fled from the Ottoman parliament to Ankara and thirty two representatives of the Defense of the National Rights along with the members of the parliament constituted the first nationalist parliament also called Grand National Assembly or Great Assembly of the Nation.War of Independence As the government of Sultan Mehmed VI accepted the Treaty of Svres on 10th August 1920, the Ottoman Empire was divided and was given under different foreign command. The Treaty was completely un acceptable to the revolutionary nationalists. At the end of September 1920, Turkish nationalists under Kzim Pashas command advanced from Erzurum to Sarkam.The advancement of the Turkish army and Bolsheviks coup against the Armenian government in capital of Armenia ended the possibility of an independent Armenia in Eastern Anatolia. The Britons refused to consider any military action against Turk nationalists to impose the peace terms in the region. Italy and France had already started to develop an understanding with the nationalists. On the 10th of January 1921, the nationalists defeated the Greeks. Now the international situation slightly shifted in the favor of the nationalists. The Peas Treaty had broken quickly. The Italians and the French concluded arrangements with the nationalists separately to withdraw their influence from Anatolia. These successes brought precious moments for the nationalists. The Turkish people faced a defining moment to their own destiny. The government in Ankara granted extraordinary authority to Mustafa Kemal, who personally commanded the army for three months. A long battle was fought in August and September 1921 on the Sakarya River and Mustafa Kemal & the nationalist forces won the war.After a month, a peace assemblage was held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Ismet Bey, who led the Turkish delegation, proved his capabilities to be an effective spokesman. A peace treaty was finally concluded in July 1923 known as The Treaty of Lausanne which confirmed the Turkish nationalists military victory. The state continues to teach that the Republic is based on the secular principles of Atatrk (Shank-land, pg 65) the Turkish nationalists got back Eastern Thrace and the whole of Anatolia. The Turkish people finally found their independent country under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.Works CitedBernard Lewis, The Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford University Press, London, 1961. rogue chip 473.David Shank-land The Alevis in Turkey T he Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition, RoutledgeCurzon, New York, 2003. varlet Number 65.Kemal H. Karpat, Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History, Brill, Boston, 2002, scallywag Number 840Robin Higham Dennis E. Showalter, Researching World War I, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 2003. knave Number 161.Justin McCarthy, The Ottoman Turks An prefatory History to 1923, Longman, London 1997. Page Number 349.Emre Sencer, Balkan Nationalisms in the Ottoman Parliament 1909, East Europe, 2004, Page Number 41+Chronology, Journal of International Affairs, Columbia, 2000 Page Number 341.Lausanne Treatyhttp//www.hri.org/docs/lausanne/ Accessed April 10, 2007Kemal H. Karpat, Ottoman Past and Todays Turkey, Brill, Boston, 2002, Page Number 155.Ernest Jackh. The Rising Crescent Turkey Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Farrar & Rinehart New York, 1944 Page Number 89.